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# Grade 9 Science Exam ~ Matter

Notes from grade 9 science in matter (taught by Mr. Dicresce, semester 1)
by

## Megann Wall

on 4 January 2013

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#### Transcript of Grade 9 Science Exam ~ Matter

Science Notes for Exam Matter series of steps used to gain knowledge Scientific Method : something that can be detected by one your senses (see, smell, touch) Observation descriptions of something using your senses Qualitative : Quantitative : measurement or count
involving numbers Ask a question about what you observe. Question : a prediction based on facts or observations Hypothesis : perform the experiment using the method you came up with and record the results Result : State whether your prediction was confirmed or not and try to explain your results Conclusion : Design an Experiment! Control Variable factors that change during the experiment

independent

dependent factors that are NOT changed between two groups is the one that is controlled or changed by the experimenter Independent Dependent is the one that changes as a result of the independent variable Matter - is anything that has a mass and volume (therefore it has a density)

Mass- a measure of the quantity of particles in an object (do not conffuuse with weight)

Volume - a measure of how big an object or how much space/fluid is displaces What is Matter? 1. All matter is made up of tiny particles that have empty spaces between them
2. Different substances have different kinds of particles
3. Particles are in constant random motion
4. The particles of a substance move faster as its temperature increases, likewise slower when decreased
5. Particles attracts each other; the forces between particles The Particle Theory -a pure substance is made up of only one kind of matter (particle) and has a unique set of properties
- it is either an element or compound
- an element is a pure substance that cannot be broken down
- made up of only one kind of atom
- they are the building blocks for all other substances
- a compound is a pure substance that is made from two or more elements that are combined together chemically in a specific ratio Pure Substances - a mixture contains more than one type of particle Mixtures Mechanical Mixture
(heterogeneous) - when two or more pure substances are mixed together Solution (homogeneous) - made up of more than one particle but you can only see one phase (one particle is dissolved in another
- the solute gets dissolved
- the solvent dissolves the solute - a characteristic/description of a substance that may help to identify it Physical
Properties 1. The substance remains the same, even though it may change state or form
2. No new substances are created
3. The can be reversed
4. Changes of state (liquid, gas, solid) Physical Change State, color, texture, odor, luster, clarity, taste malleability, ductility, melting point, boiling point, hardness, crystal form, solubility, viscosity, density Chemical Changes - a chemical change is a change in the starting of substances and the production of one or more new substances

1. A new color appears
2. Heat or light is given off
3. Bubbles or gas are formed
4. A solid material forms into a liquid precipitation
5. A new odor is produced
6. Changes are difficult to reverse Chemical
Properties - chemical property describes the behavior of a substance as it becomes a new substance (normally with the help of an acid or heat)
- combustibility is the ability of a substance to react quickly with oxygen to produce heat and light John Newlands proposed the Law of Octaves because he saw that there was a gap of eight elements between elements with similar properties, for example, between a reactive metal and the next reactive metal Dmitri Mendeleev is credited with creating the modern periodic table. This is because he used his table to accurately predict elements that had not yet been discovered Once the proton was discovered in 1920, it was realized that the elements should be ordered by atomic number, not atomic mass. The columns of the periodic table are called groups

Along a group : increase in reactivity The rows of the periodic table are called period.

down a period : increase in reactivity Most reactive metal : potassium
Most reactive semi/non-metal : iodine - the number of outer shell electrons are the same
- the number of complete electron shells increases by one
- the number of a group is the same as the number of electrons in the outer shell of elements in that group, except for group 0 Trends in Groups (columns) Trends in Periods (rows) - the number of outer shell electrons increases by one
- the number of complete electron shell stays the same
- the point at which a new period starts is the point at which electrons begin to fill a new shell Group 1: alkali metals
Group 2: alkaline earth metals
Group 3: ---------------
Group 4: ---------------
Group 5: ---------------
Group 6: ---------------
Group 7: halogens
Group 0: noble gases
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