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The Islamic Golden Age

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LILIAN ALHAKIM

on 18 March 2014

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Transcript of The Islamic Golden Age

Islamic Golden Age
House of Wisdom—scholarship in the Abbasid Dynasty
A library where leading Muslim scholars translated text from different languages into Arabic.

Writings translated were of different fields: science, mathematics, astronomy, medicine.

Served as an institution where information was shared among scholars from around the world.

Was destroyed during a Mongol invasion of Baghdad.

Over 400,000 manuscripts were rescued and stored in the Maragheh Observatory in Iran.
The decay of the Golden Age.
Abbasid-Seljuq Empire (750-1258)

750—Abbasid faction from eastern Iran overthrows Umayyad dynasty
751—Arab defeat of Chinese army introduces paper to the west
762—Baghdad becomes the Abbasid capital
813-833—reign of Al-Ma’mun, founder of the House of Wisdom
850—death of Al Khwarizmi
ca. 1000—Shahnameh (“Book Of Kings”) published
1025—Ibn Sina’s Canon of Medicine written
1055—Seljuq Turks gain control of Baghdad
1096-1204—Crusades (please note, this represents the four major Crusades, not the less important earlier and later religious wars that also carried the name ‘crusade’)
1187—Saladin recaptures Jerusalem
12th century—A Thousand and One Nights first compiled
1258—Mongols invade and destroy Baghdad, ending the Abbasid-Seljuq dynasty
Abbasid dynasty
The Islamic Golden Age
813-833—reign of Al-Ma’mun, founder of the House of Wisdom
Briefing :
Refrences :
http://www.slideshare.net/AbirChaaban/the-golden-age-of-islam-10369383#
http://www.middleeastpdx.org/resources/original/the-golden-age-of-islamic-achievement/lesson-4-house-of-wisdom-scholarship-in-the-abbasid-dynasty/
http://www.princeton.edu/~achaney/tmve/wiki100k/docs/Abbasid_Caliphate.html
http://regentsprep.org/Regents/global/themes/goldenages/islam.cfm
The Abbasid caliphate or, more simply, the Abbasids (Arabic:al-‘abbāsīyūn), was the third of the Islamic caliphates. It was ruled by the Abbasid dynasty of caliphs, who built their capital in Baghdad after overthrowing the Umayyad caliphs from all but the Al Andalus region.

The Abbasid caliphate was founded by the descendants of the Islamic prophet Muhammad's youngest uncle, Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib, in Harran in 750 CE and shifted its capital in 762 to Baghdad. It flourished for two centuries, but slowly went into decline with the rise to power of the Turkish army it had created, the Mamluks. Within 150 years of gaining control of Persia, the caliphs were forced to cede power to local dynastic emirs who only nominally acknowledged their authority. The caliphate also lost the Western provinces of Al Andalus, Maghreb and Ifriqiya to an Umayyad prince, the Aghlabids and the Fatimids, respectively.

The Abbasids' rule was briefly ended for three years in 1258, when Hulagu Khan, the Mongol khan, sacked Baghdad, resuming in Mamluk Egypt in 1261, from where they continued to claim authority in religious matters until 1519, when power was formally transferred to the Ottomans and the capital relocated to Constantinople.
Brief history of Abbasids:
The abbasis were called after
muhammad's uncle (abbas bin abd al mutaleb)
they opposed the rulers of The Umayyads'.
After several conflicts between the two groups the abbasids succeeded in overthrowing the Umayyads in the battle of Al-zab 750,and installing their own caliph on the throne.
the umayyads had no blood relations with the prophet, this created a problem and led to the rise of the abbasid.

The abbasids promised their supporters ,
many of whom were mawali,
that all muslims would be treated equally.


Important contributions of the golden age
of islam in each of the following domains
:
Mathematics
Medicine/science
Art/Architecture
Literature
Ibn Rushd :

commentary and translation
of the Aristotle's works.
Ibn-khaldoun :
Historiographer and hisotsrian.

The muqaddimah.

Looked for scientific factors
to describe history.
Omar Khayyam:
works of literature;
-RUBAIYAT
-1001(arabian) NIGHTS.translated to all languages.
-POETRY

Persian mathematician
numerical system of India
codified the mathematical system (algebra)
use of zero
astronomy
Geography




Blend of arab,turkish,and Persian influences.


KEY DATES
http://www.middleeastpdx.org/resources/original/the-golden-age-of-islamic-achievement/lesson-1-history-of-the-abbasid-and-umayyad-dynasties/
http://www.islamicity.com/mosque/ihame/sec7.htm
http://www.theislamicunion.com/2.html
Introduction
the flourish of the islamic civilization and the start of its expansion in different fields.
Started when the Abbasid took over the Ummayds.
Lasted until the conquest of the mongols who destroyed Baghdad in 1285.
Al-Khwarizmi
Mathematics

The most influential scholar of the Islamic Golden Age
Wrote 450 books
Most famous for his works on philosophy and medicine (the canon of medicine)
Astronomy, chemistry, psychology, theology, mathematics, physics, and poetry.
the mosque of kairouan (Tunisia)
the mosque of Samara (Iraq)
the mosque of Cordoba (Spain)
Art/Architecture
Ibn Sina:
Transferred the capital from Damascus to Baghdad.
Mongolian invasion

The end of the Abbasid dynasty was the end of the golden age.

North Africa west of Libya and east of Morocco had fallen away from Abbasid control.

Other provinces soon broke loose also

Khorasan became an independent state, with the tacit consent of the 'Abbasid.

. Al Mau'um died and was succeeded by his brother, Al-Mu'tasim.
Iraq was influenced by persian history and culture and moving the capital was part of the mawali demand for less arab influence in the empire

the abbasids symbolized their connection with their preislamic
predecessors by founding a new capital baghdad.

Under the Abassids, Baghdad became a center of science, culture, philosophy, and invention during the Golden Age of Islam.
The golden age started in the reign of haroun al rashid and continued to the reign of his son al maaum.

the abbasid were supported by the shites of Ali because they believed that they are related to the prophet as they were led by the prophet's uncle.
In the golden age of islam baghdad became the most important center of different fields of education.
the fall of the abbasids dynasty
http://www.gohistorygo.com/#!house-of-wisdom/cjsr
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