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Transcript of Art History
30,000b.c - 3000 b.c
(40,000 years ago / 27000 years total)
The Stone Age can be divided into three Periods:
Paleolithic Period or Old Stone Age
(30,000 BC – 10,000 BC)
Mesolithic Period or Middle Stone Age (10,000 BC – 8,000 BC)
Neolithic Period or New Stone Age
(8,000 BC – 3,000 BC).
Venus of Willendorf
Oldest Recorded Sculpture, Believed to be about fertility. 11.1 cm high, currently in the Naturistorisches Museum, Vienna, Austria
Art Term: Venus Figurines - an umbrella term for the prehistoric female statuettes
Lascaux Cave Paintings
Painted in Western Europe, Namely in France and Spain
(3500 b.c - 539 b.c)
The major civilizations that flourished during the Mesopotamian time were the:
Sumerians (3500-2300 BC)
Akkadians (2180-2340 BC)
Babylonians (1792-1750 BC)
Hitties (1600-1200 BC)
Assyrains (1000-612 BC)
Persians (559-331 BC)
Standard of Ur, 2600 B.C.E.
Depicts war and peace, inlaid with shells and stones.
Victory Stele of Naram-Sin, 2230 B.C.E:
This is the first piece to show one man as above others, (Godlike)
lshtar Gate, 575 B.C.E:
Images of dragons and cattle, Once considered one of the seven wonders of the world. Dedicated to the Babylonian Goddess Ischar (Plays a part in festivals)
Stele of Hammurabi, 1790 B.C.E:
Represents the law that the sixth king Hammurabi enforced. This piece shows that he thought he was chosen by God.
Lamassu, 720-705 B.C.:
Combination of a bull`s body, eagles wings and a human crowned head. Represents the ultimate protection from evil. Placed at the sides of a door to serve as a permanent protector.
Persepolis, 500 B.C.:
Built by Darius and Xerxes,Located in Iran, A place for spectacular receptions.
(3100 b.c. - 30 b.c.)
Greek and Hellenistic
(850 b.c.–31 b.c.)
(500 b.c.– a.d. 476)
Indian, Chinese, and Japanese
(653 b.c.–a.d. 1900)
Currently in the Metropolitan Museum of Art
Imhotep was chief architect to the Egyptian pharaoh Djoser (reigned c.2630 - c.2611 BC). He was responsible for the world's first known monumental stone building, the Step Pyramid at Sakkara and is the first architect we know by name.
Statue of Seated Imhotep
The Great Pyramid of Giza is the oldest and largest of the three pyramids in the Giza Necropolis bordering what is now El Giza, Egypt. It is the oldest of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, and the only one to remain largely intact.
Bust of Nefertiti
The Nefertiti Bust is a 3,300-year-old painted limestone bust of Nefertiti, the Great Royal Wife of the Egyptian Pharaoh Akhenaten, and one of the most copied works of ancient Egypt. Owing to the work, Nefertiti has become one of the most famous women of the ancient world, and an icon of feminine beauty. The work is believed to have been crafted in 1345 BC by the sculptor Thutmose.
Story of Gilgamesh
There are 4 different Phases of Greek art:
Geometric Art (900 - 700 b.c)
Archaic Art (700-480 b.c)
Classical Art (480 - 323 b.c)
Hellenistic Art (323 - 31 b.c)
Parthenon - Athens
480 BC - 440 BC, was an Athenian sculptor
Myron as the first to achieve lifelike representation in art, but it would be more accurate to say that he was the first Greek sculptor to combine a mastery of movement with a gift for harmonious composition. Working almost exclusively in bronze, he was best known for his many studies of athletes in action.
Was a Greek sculptor, painter and architect. Is commonly regarded as one of the greatest of all sculptors of Classical Greece.
About 42 ft (13 m) tall, A sculpture of ivory plates and gold panels over a wooden framework. It was regarded as one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World until its eventual loss and destruction during the 5th century AD. No copy of the statue has ever been found, and details of its form are known only from ancient Greek descriptions and representations on coins.
Statue of Zeus at Olympia
An ancient Greek sculptor in bronze. An ancient Greek sculptor in bronze. Although none of his original works survive, literary sources identifying Roman marble copies of his work allow reconstructions to be made.
Polykleitos consciously created a new approach to sculpture, writing a treatise (Kanon) and designing a male nude (also known as Kanon) exemplifying his aesthetic theories of the mathematical bases of artistic perfection.
He was the first to sculpt the nude female form in a life-size statue.
Hermes and the infant Dionysus
Augustus of Prima Porta
Augustus of Prima Porta is a 2.03m high marble statue of Augustus Caesar. Augustus is shown in this role of "Imperator", the commander of the army, as thoracatus —or commander-in-chief of the Roman army
Flavian Amphitheatre, it is in the centre of the city of Rome, Italy. Built of concrete and stone, it is the largest amphitheatre in the world (50,000 and 80,000 spectators)
The Ancient Romans would sometimes flood the Colosseum and have miniature ship naval battles inside as a way of entertainment.
The Colosseum in Italy only took 9 years to build using over 60,000 Jewish slaves.
Breakdown of Activity by length of scene
TRAJAN SPEECHES 6%
EVENTS RECORDED BY HISTORIANS 4%
Carved into the structure are 2,662 figures in 155 scenes. Trajan appears in 58 of them. Viewers were meant to follow the story from bottom to top standing in one place rather than circling the column 23 times, as the frieze does. Key scenes could be seen from two main vantage points (A and B in the graphic).
Roman triumphal column in Rome, Italy, that commemorates Roman emperor Trajan's victory in the Dacian Wars. It was probably constructed under the supervision of the architect Apollodorus of Damascus at the order of the Roman Senate.
The word Pantheon is a Greek adjective meaning “honor all Gods”. In fact the pantheon was first built as a temple to all gods.
The most fascinating part of the Pantheon is its giant dome, with its famous hole in the top (The eye of the Pantheon, or oculus). The dome was the largest in the world for 1300 years and until today it remains the largest unsupported dome in the world!
This Pantheon… is not the original! Don’t worry—it’s still ancient. But it just so happens to be the third version of the building. The first one was built in about 27 B.C., but burned down; the second, built in the 1st century A.D., also burned down. This, the third, was built in 125 A.D. Luckily, it survived later fires!
M·AGRIPPA·L·F·COS·TERTIVM·FECIT,” which stands for, in English, “Marcus Agrippa, son of Lucius, consul for the third time, built this.”
Most people know that Raphael, the famous Renaissance painter, is buried inside. What a lot of people don’t know is that Maria Bibbiena, his fiancée, is as well—right next to him. While that might seem sweet, it’s also tragic. Raphael became engaged to Maria, the niece of a powerful cardinal, in 1514. He put off the marriage for six years—and, in the meantime, was involved in a passionate love affair with the daughter of a local baker—until it was too late for Maria, who died. Raphael died not long after, at the age of just 37 years old.
Birth of Buddha (563 b.c.);
Silk Road opens (1st
century b.c.); Buddhism
spreads to China (1st–2nd
centuries a.d.) and Japan
(5th century a.d.)
Often referred to as a “Northern Song master” when it came to painting. Chinese landscape painter His work demonstrates his innovative techniques for producing multiple perspectives which he called "the angle of totality." or "Floating Perspective,"
Autumn in the River Valley
A Japanese artist, ukiyo-e painter and printmaker. Hokusai is best known as author of the woodblock print series Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji which includes the internationally recognized print, The Great Wave off Kanagawa.
The Great Wave off Kanagawa
Ukiyo-e :"pictures of the floating world", is a genre of woodblock prints and paintings that flourished in Japan. Typical focus was on beautiful women, popular actors, and other scenes of the urban pleasure
A Chinese painter. He did many landscape paintings with diluted ink, known as "treating ink like gold", which gives the appearance of being in a foggy dream. At that time, he was considered the best landscape painter of all time.
Luxuriant Forest among Distant Peaks
A Solitary Temple Amid Clearing Peaks
A celebrated painter of ancient China. In 366, he became an officer. Later he was promoted to royal officer. He was also a talented poet and calligrapher. He wrote three books about painting theory: Introduction of Famous Paintings of Wei and Jin Dynasties and Painting Yuntai Mountain. He wrote: "In figure paintings the clothes and the appearances were not very important. The eyes were the spirit and the decisive factor."
The Admonitions of the Instructress to the Court Ladies
Nymph of the Luo River
A Japanese ukiyo-e artist, considered the last great master of that tradition. Hiroshige is best known for his landscapes, such as the series The Fifty-three Stations of the Tōkaidō and The Sixty-nine Stations of the Kiso Kaidō; and for his depictions of birds and flowers. The subjects of his work were atypical of the ukiyo-e genre. Hiroshige's death marked the beginning of a rapid decline in the ukiyo-e genre
Print 11: Hakone
Edo, print 30: The Plum Garden in Kameido
View of the Whirlpools at Awa triptych
Eastern Orthodox Cathedral (537–1204)
Roman Catholic Cathedral (1204–1261)
Eastern Orthodox Cathedral (1261–1453)
Imperial Mosque (1453–1931)
Isidore of Miletus,
Anthemius of Tralles
Is considered to be the greatest medieval Russian painter of Orthodox icons and frescos. (a technique of mural painting executed upon freshly-laid, or wet lime plaster. Water is used as the vehicle for the pigment to merge with the plaster, and with the setting of the plaster, the painting becomes an integral part of the wall.)
Rublev's famous icon of the Trinity
Version of the Theotokos of Vladimir
St. Gregory the Theologian
Mosque–Cathedral of Córdoba
Visigothic Catholic Church from 600;
divided into Muslim and Christian halves from the 710s
Catholic Church (1236–present)
a palace and fortress complex located in Granada, Andalusia, Spain.
In general, Middle Age art can be divided up into 8 main periods and styles: