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The Hebrews and Judaism
Transcript of The Hebrews and Judaism
Between 2000 and 1500 BC
Began as simple herders
Judaism = their religion
Abraham- beginning of the Hebrews
God told Abraham to leave his home in Mesopotamia and travel west.
God promised to lead Abraham and make his descendants into a mighty nation 1. Abraham and Moses Lead the Hebrews Abraham settled in Canaan on the Medeterranean Sea.
Hebrews lived in Canaan for many years.
Later some moved to Egypt.
This worried the Pharaoh in Egypt so he made the Hebrews slaves. 1. Abraham and Moses Lead the Hebrews Moses - leaders of the Hebrews
1. God told Moses to lead the people out of Egypt
2. The Pharaoh refused
3. Terrible plagues and disasters
4. The Pharaoh was frightened and agreed to free the Hebrews
5. The Exodus - the journey to lead the Hebrews out of Egypt.
The Hebrews believed they were set free because God loved them. 1. Abraham and Moses Lead the Hebrews The Hebrews wandered around the desert for many years looking for Canaan.
Came to the Sinai, a mountain.
The Ten Commandments - a code of moral laws
God gave Moses the T.C. on two stone tablets
By accepting the T.C. the Hebrews agreed to worship only God. 2. Kings Unite the Israelites Threatened by the Philistines who lived along the Mediterranean.
Mid- 1000s BC Philistines invaded Israelitles' land
Israelites united After 40 years the Hebrews reached Canaan.
After fightings for control they became known as the Israelites.
Lived in small communities and selected judges to lead, enforce laws and settle disputes 2. Kings Unite the Israelites Saul - first king of Israel
successful in military
not a strong king
never won leader support --> decisions were fought over King Saul 2. Kings Unite the Israelites became king after Saul died
an outlaw who was a servant in Saul's palace
well loved by Israelites
full support of Israel's leaders
Won many wars for the people of Canaan
Captured Jerusalem - Israel's capital. King David 2. Kings Unite the Israelites David's son who took the thone after David
expanded the kingdom
made Israel rich though trade
built a great temple to God in Jerusalem - center of Israelites religious life and a symbol of their faith. King Solomon After Solomon's death fighting began about who should be king
Israel split into two kingdoms - Israel and Judah
Both lasted for several centuries then were conquered
Israel - The Assyrians
Judah - The Chaldeans
Chaldeans destroyed the temple in Jerusalem Babylonian Captivity - the enslavement of Jews in Babylon
Diaspora- scattering of Jews outside of Canaan
Rebuilt Second Temple 3. Invaders Conquer and Rule 3. Invaders Conquer and Rule The Maccabees - a Jewish family who lead a successful revolt
Jews lead for about 100 years
Conquered by Romans
Jews were unhappy under Roman rule but made many advances
Added to the Second Temple
Yohanan ben Zaccai clarified teaching a build a school 4. Women in Hebrew Society Society and goverment were dominated by men
Women had few rights
Must obey father and husband
Husband chosen by father 4. Women in Hebrew Society Some were political and miltary leaders
Queen Ester and judge Deborah saved people from enemies
Miriam, (Moses' sister), spiritual leader
Ruth was an example of how people should treat their families 2. Jewish Texts 3. Scrolls Reveal Past Beliefs 4. Later Cultures 1. Jewish Beliefs in One God Monotheism - the belief in one god
most important belief
Yahweh - name for God
shaped Jewish society 2. Jewish Belief in Education Teaching children the basics of Judaism was important
Older boys study with professional teachers to learn the religion
NOT GIRLS!! 3. Belief in Justice and Righteousness Justice means kindness and fairness in dealing with other people
EVERYONE DESERVES JUSTICE
Expected to give aid and be fair
Righteousness means doing with is right
Expected to behave properly 4. Belief in Obedience and Law Guided by moral and religious laws
Believe God gave these law to be followed
Ten Commandments = most important laws
Mosaic law = record system of laws for daily life
Ex: how to pray to celebrate
No work on holidays or Sabboth
day of rest because of Jewish tradition Types of Communities Orthodox Jews = strictly follow Mosaic law
Reform Jews = Choose not to follow ancient laws
Conservative Jews = fall in the middle 2. Jewish Texts describes laws and principles
Synagogue - Jewish house of Worship
The Torah - the most sacred texts of recorded laws
5 books including history until the death of Moses
not touched for respect 2. Jewish Texts The Hebrew Bible
Part 1 = The Torah = 5 books
Part 2 = message of Prophets = 8 books
Part 3 = 11 books of poetry, songs, stories, lessons, and history
Prophets - people who are said to receive messages from God to be taught to others 2. Jewish Texts Story of Daniel is told to show the power of faith
Proverbs - short expressions of Hebrew wisdom.
Commentaries -explain Jewish Laws
Talmud = a set of commentaries, stories, and folklore. 3. Scrolls Reveal Past Beliefs Dead Sea Scrolls - writing by Jews who lived about 2,000 years ago
Written between 100 BC and 50 AD
Include prayers, commentaries, letters, and passages from the Hebrew Bible 3. Scrolls Reveal Past Beliefs 1947
Young boys were looking for a lost goat along the caves. They were afraid to go inside so they threw a rock in hoping to scare the goat out. Instead they heard something shatter. They went into explore and found several old jars filled with moldy scrolls. Scholars started searching throughout the desert for more scrolls. 4. Judaism and Later Cultures Jewish ideas have greatly influenced other cultures - especially the Western World
helped shape the largest religion of Western Society - Christianity.
Jesus was Jewish and many of his teaching reflected Jewish ideas
Influenced Islam - descendants of Abraham as well TODAY Many people ...
use the Ten Commandments as a guide for how they should live
Do not steal, lie, cheat
Honor parents, families, neighbors
Do not work on weekends - honors Sabbath
give money, items, and time to charities to help poor and needy Judaism Over the Centuries 2. Cultural Traditions 3. Traditions and Holy Days 1. Revolt, Defeat, Migration Israel was taken over by Rome
Zealots: the most rebellious of the Jews
Jews shouldn't answer to anyone but God
Lead the revolt against Rome - unsuccessful
Destroyed towns and lost many lives
Romans burned the Second Temple
Jews lost will to fight 1. Revolt, Defeat, Migration Masada - Group of Zealots who locked themselves up on a mountain
very hard to reach
Romans took 2 years to build ramp.
When Romans broke through they found the Zealots took their own lives.
Zealots refused to become Roman slaves 1. Revolt, Defeat, Migration Capturing Masada ended the Jewish revolt
Many of Jerusalem's population was killed by the Romans
Jews were made slaves in Rome
Jews moved to Alexandria in Egypt 1. Second Revolt 60 years later the Jews who stayed began another revolt.
Jews defeated again.
No longer allowed in Jersualem
Migration increased throughout the region 1. Second Revolt Effects
local synagogues became more important
Rabbis - religious teachers - had a greater role in guiding lives
Over centuries Jews were forced to move to different places in the world due to discrimination 2. Two Cultural Traditions Beliefs remained the same- different customs
Developed own languages, rituals, and cultures
2. Two Cultural Traditions Ashkenazism- the Jews in Eastern Europe
France, Germany, and east Europe
Communities seperate from non-Jews
Yiddish - Jewish language similar to German but written in Hebrew 2. Two Cultural Traditions Sephardim - Jewish descentdants in Spain and Portugal
Ladino- language mixed of Spanish, Hebrew, and Arabic
Live mixed with non-Jews
Religious and cultural practice borrow elements from other cultures.
Golden Age of Jewish Culture- 1000s AD - made many advances in math, astronomy, medicine, philosophy, and many beautiful writings
3. Traditions and Holy Days help them understand and celebrate their history
Hanukkah - December
honors the rededication of the Second Temple
The Maccabees didn't have enough oil to perform the rededication ceremony
The oil burned for eight nights instead of only one.
Today - Light candles in a menorah for representation 3. Traditions and Holy Days Passover -March/April
a time to remember the Exodus
More important the Hanukkah
Today - celebrate by eating matzo, a flat, unrisen bread, ceremonies, and a seder, a ritual meal 3. Traditions and Holy Days High Holy Days - September/ October
Rosh Hashanah - celebrates the beginning of the new year in the jewish calendar
Yom Kippur - Jews ask for forgiveness of their sins
Holiest day of the entire year
No eating or drinking all day
ceremonies date back to the days of the Second Temple