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Transcript of Timeline
Activities Movement &Impact Perspectives Technology Deaf Schools term
'Restrictive' 1990 1843-1912 AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT The Project: Captioning Impact: Milan Conference Brittnie Vigee Erica Peters Katelynn Holland Shaneque Sweat Jamie Salinas Communication Styles Oral Uses spoken language, lip reading and voice training’s The students are taught to “speak” and “hear”. Manual Method Based on the use of sign language completely dating back to around 1790 Developed by Abb’e Charles-Michel de l’Epee.(“The father of sign language“) The manual method is interacting with one another with out spoken language “considered a natural way Deaf children learn to communicate” Visibility Is important in history because it allows Deaf individuals the right to choose weather or not they want to sign depending on what that person prefers. The Milan conference of 1800 1817 First
School 1818 NY 1820 PA 1823 KY 1829 OH VA 1839 More than 30 schools for the Deaf were established by Deaf and hearing teachers from the American School for the Deaf. Schools in Indiana, Tennessee, North Carolina, Illinois, Georgia, South Carolina are introduced 1843-1912 Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet travels to Europe and meets with Laurent Clerc, they return to American and found the American School for the Deaf in Hartford, Connecticut. Originally named the Connecticut Asylum for the Education and Instruction of Deaf and Dumb Persons, the first permanent school for the deaf in America. Americans Interested In Deaf Education 1864 The conference was debating on wither or not to take out the use of sign language as a method for educating deaf children. Basically discouraging the use of sign language. Majority wanted to keep sign language and speech due to different needs of children. . Majority wanted to keep sign language and speech due to different needs of children. In conclusion, oral methods were finalized as the method of choice considering that signs and speech may have a disadvantage of hindering speech and lip reading. Milan Conference 1880 Deaf Players Change The Game 1901 Baseball's American League gets its first grand slam thanks to William "Dummy" Hoy, a deaf player. Umpires created hand signals so that Hoy can see a strike call from the outfield. Deaf Players Change The Game 1920s In the Gallaudet University's football team keeps its plays a secret by hiding signed instructions in a huddle formation. Soon, other teams are huddling up too, and a football tradition is born. The technology of Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) and Transcription has progressed greatly over the past few years. Ever since research of this technology began in 1936 accuracy levels have reached 95% and better with transcription speeds at over 160 words per minutes. ATT&T's Bell Labs: At that time, most research was funded and performed by Universities and the U.S. Government (primarily by the Military and DARPA - Defense Advanced Research Project Agency). It was not until the early 1980's when the technology reached the commercial market. http://www.dragon-medical-transcription.com/historyspeechrecognition.html USA Deaf Sports Federation 1945 Originated in 1945 as American Athletic Union of the Deaf. Became American Athletic Association of the Deaf, and finally the USA Deaf Sports Federation (1997). Role: Coordinates international participation of American deaf athletes. Affiliated with the United States Olympic Committee. History: Eugène Rubens-Alcais of France and Antoine Dresse of Belgium. Theses two men generally known as the pioneers of the Deaf sports movement Eugène Rubens-Alcais (1884-1963):
Was a car mechanic and competitive cyclist.Led the Paris Sports Club for Deaf MutesFounded the magazine, The Silent SportsmanPresident of what is today the International Committee of Sports for the Deaf from its founding in 1924 until 1953. Antoine Dresse (1902-1998):
was a runner and a tennis player
Founding secretary-general of what is today the International Committee of Sports for the Deaf. 1950: Almost 85% of all deaf children attended schools for the deaf Inventions! The TDD/TTY was invented by Robert Weitbrecht a Deaf scientist The Telecommunications Device for the Deaf (TDD) or Telephone to Telephone Typewriter (TTY)are all helpful tools often used by Deaf or hard of hearing individuals 1964 http://www.lifeprint.com/asl101/topics/relay-services.htm Deaf Theater Takes Shape 1967 1967- National Theater of Deaf is established Bernard Bragg 1965 Deaf actor and mime, stars in “The Silent Man"
Founder of the National Theater of the Deaf Total
Communication Dates back to 1967 through the early 1980s David Denton developed this at the Maryland school for the Deaf in 1967.France,the U.K, China, Australia and the U.S and more slowly started to learn about TC. TC is sign language, voice, finger spelling, lip reading and more.Using this method should be fitted to the child, not the other way around, meaning forcing the child to use this method isn't the best idea. TC is common because it doesn't matter the severity of the hearing loss child’s parents, educators, and everyone involved in the child’s life are apart of this communication method. Create a program that allows words displayed on a television screen that describe the audio or sound portion of a program. Goal:
Allow viewers who are deaf or hard of hearing to follow the dialogue and the action of a program simultaneously. They can also provide information about who is speaking or about sound effects that may be important to understanding a news story, a political event, or the plot of a program. Target Audience:
Deaf or hard of hearing individuals The Year is 1971 Although the initial purpose of the Captioned Films program was to provide subtitled Hollywood films for deaf people, educators were quick to recognize the potential of captioned films and other visual media as tremendous untapped educational resources. Captioning helped Deaf Culture become more involved in social and political aspects of society. http://www.dcmp.org/caai/nadh80.pdf
http://inventors.about.com/library/inventors/blclosedcaptioning.htm Where did the people upstairs get the info? Resources Captioning was first previewed to the public in 1971, at the First National Conference on Television for the Hearing Impaired in Nashville, Tennessee. A second preview of closed captioning was held at Gallaudet College on February 15, 1972. Section 504 provides: "No otherwise qualified individual with a disability in the United States . . . shall, solely by reason of her or his disability, be excluded from the participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance . . . ." Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act 1973 Professor Graeme Clark pioneered the Multi-channel Cochlear Implant for severe-to profound deafness. Clark and his small team made the major break through and the first patient heard speech. It was the very first time that anyone had shown that an artificial sensory stimulus could be interfaced to human consciousness. 1978 http://graemeclarkfoundation.org/about/about-graeme-clark/ DPN was a huge protest at Gallaudet University that started in March of 1988. The students, faculty, and staff at the university as well as the national deaf community were united and fought together for one clear goal...To finally have a deaf person run the world's only deaf university--Gallaudet. Staff, faculty, students, and alumni of Gallaudet were ready for a deaf president. However, the Board of Trustees chose a hearing candidate over two qualified deaf finalists instead.The protestors shut down the entire campus during this movement. They blocked campus entrances; no one could enter the school. Many were arrested and put in prison. These protestors made national headlines. As a united group, the deaf were going to do everything possible until they got their way.Finally after a week of protest. I. King Jordan, a faculty member of Gallaudet, became the first deaf president of the University. Deaf President Now 1988 The DPN movement unified deaf people of every age and background. They collectively fought until they were heard. They triumphed and proved that they don't have to let society take control of their culture. Perhaps DPN's most profound impact was felt by hearing people. Deaf people have always known that they could do whatever hearing people could do, but, until DPN, most hearing people did not agree. DPN opened their minds to this reality. DPN also brought about legislative and social change in the United States. In the months and years immediately following DPN, the nation saw a flurry of new bills passed and laws enacted that promoted the rights of deaf and other disabled people. Congress passed more bills in the five years between DPN and 1993, that promoted the rights of and provided access for deaf people, than in the 216 years of the nation's existence. At the same time, the movement was a strong reminder to deaf and hard of hearing people that they did not have to accept limitations put on them by others. DPN taught the hearing world that it is better to look at what deaf people can do than what they cannot do, because what they can do far outweighs their inability to hear. Indeed, as one reporter said, "if all hearing people knew how to sign, deaf people's so-call disability wouldn't exist." And since DPN, increasing numbers of hearing people are taking classes in American Sign Language, which is now recognized by many high schools and colleges as a foreign language option. Marlee Matlin becomes the first deaf actress to win an Academy Award, for her role in the movie "Children of a Lesser God." Deaf Actress Wins Oscar 1987 Dating back to 1768 in Germany by Samuel Heinicke The ADA provides civil rights protections to individuals with disabilities similar to those afforded to individuals on the basis of race, color, sex, national origin, age, and religion. This piece of legislation ensures equal opportunity for individuals with disabilities in employment, public accommodations, transportation, State and local government services, and telecommunications. 1990 Areas of significant agreement regarding improvement are employment, transportation, and public awareness. More modest improvements are indicated in the areas of education, telecommunications, recreation, community living and government services The Impact http://www.ada.gov/pubs/ada.htm Two-thirds of people with disabilities who were polled in the study believe that ADA has been the most significant social, cultural or legislative influence on their lives in the past 20 years. Impact: Its purpose is to broaden the definition of disability, which had been narrowed by U.S. Supreme Court decisions. Purpose: Individuals With Disabilities Act 1990 From the B
K “During the past three decades, medical advancements, technological breakthroughs, and legislative mandates have impacted the way people who are deaf are educated, how they communicate, and where they congregate.” P.26 “…personal computers became a basic tool in homes, schools, and businesses around 1984” p.35 “Without a doubt, personal computers, handheld devices including two-way pages, and texting telephones have had a powerful impact on communication.” P.33 “Research conducted by Rogers(1998) indicates that Deaf individuals began using the Internet in much the same fashion as their hearing counterparts. Exposed to the technology at work, in schools, and oftentimes at home, they have participated in Web surfing, e-mail, text messaging, and blogging.” P.35 “One of the most dramatic changes within the field of hearing-aid technology lies in the development and implementation of the cochlear implant.” P.32 “Another form of technology that has come to the forefront in the last three decades is speech to text technology for use with this population. This form of technology is used in nonbroadcast settings for students enrolled in educational programs(fifth grade through graduate school) and for adults attending meetings, workshops, professional development activities, business or community events, conferences, and some churches” p. 36 Mr. Bosson began his quest to bring video communication to the deaf and hard of hearing. He persuaded the Texas Public Utility Commission to test a video conference product to see if it could be a viable form of communication for deaf and hard of hearing people Roy "Ed" Bosson, ’66, of Texas is known as the Father of Video Relay Service (VRS). 1990 Webcams were first invented in 1991.It would be a long time,10 years give or take, before webcams would become common household accessories(video interpreters are called “video relay services”) Heather Whitestone, an orallyeducated deaf woman from Birmingham, Alabama, wins the coveted crown.Speech vs. sign clouds her reign. Her attempt to calm the storm by stressing individual differences and "it (speech) worked for me, but it does not work for all deaf children". First Deaf Miss America Crowned 1995 Matthew S. "The Hammer" Hamill (born on October 5, 1976 in Cincinnati, Ohio,United States) is an American wrestler and mixed martial arts (MMA) fighter. He was a three-time NCAA Division III National Champion in wrestling (1997, 1998, and 1999) while attending the Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT) in Rochester, New York. Matt also has a silver medal in Greco-Roman wrestling and a gold medal in freestyle wrestling from the 2001 Summer Deaflympics. 1997 Matt "Hammer" Hamill Another thing about Hamill -- he is a hero in the deaf community because he stands for its people. Every time he entered the cage, he became a unifying figure of perseverance for thousands of people across the globe. Christy Smith (2000) alumnus of Gallaudet University, Smith competed on this season's Survivor reality series on CBS, "The Amazon." 2000 Christy Smith, Athletic Deaf Woman Competed on Survivor F.B.Eye on the Pax channel.Bray grew up deaf since birth (May 14, 1971)Bray was involved with deaf theater (Deaf West Theater). Deanne Bray - Deaf Actress and Television Star 2002 Born in the Washington, DC metro area, deaf at birth from rubella. He grew up oral. 2003 Curtis Pride Baseball Player Pride began his career as a part-time New York Mets minor leaguer, and moved on: Salt Lake Stingers (minors)
Nashua Pride (minors)
Boston Red Sox (minors/briefly in the majors)
Kansas City Royals
Atlanta Braves (majors)
Detroit Tigers (majors)
New York Yankees (Major) On 19th July 2010, the 21st International Congress For Deaf Education (ICED) in Vancouver has finally formally regretted and rejected all Milan 1880 resolutions after several years of campaigning by Deaf people. 2010 Attention
Getter Taping their shoulder Getting the Deaf students attention is important to not start something new with out their attention. Flickering the lights Face
Face Turning your back can include loss of communication and not just hearing but also seeing properly. Seating arrangement Accommodation Interpreters Accessible
directions These ways to accommodate the Deaf are important in history because it allows the student/child to have options to better assist them when learning. Expectations Have high expectations as you would for any other student Aneta Brodski Israeli-born teenager living Queens, New York. Aneta is the first deaf youth to participate in a major slam event, and despite some initial anxiety about how the deaf performers might be received, she courageously takes the stage. In a remarkable twist of fate, Aneta meets and then collaborates with Tahani — a hearing Palestinian slam poet. They create a hearing/deaf duet touching on their shared personal and cultural experiences — generating a new form of slam poetry that crosses boundaries, cultures, and languages. Resources http://www.pbs.org/independentlens/deaf-jam/ http://www.lifeprint.com/asl101/topics/deafsports05.htm http://www.gallaudet.edu/clerc_center/information_and_resources/info_to_go/educate_children_ http://www.canyons.edu/departments/sign/powerpoint%201%20-%20historical%20perspective.htm http://www.nad.org/issues/education/k-12/position-statement-schools-deaf http://sports.espn.go.com/extra/mma/news/story?id=6586926 Deaf
Education Class Settings