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Transcript of Skin Alterations
Herpes Virus and Common Diseases
Varicella zoster: chickenpox
Everybody knows chickenpox and likely you experienced the disease as a child, can be dangerous when exposed to it in adulthood.
Another common ailment is lip and mouth “cold sores”
Genital Herpes lesions caused by HSV, sexually transmitted
HSV-1 cold sores (mild but annoying diseases)
HSV-2 genital herpes
However the Herpes family is huge, over 100 members
Psoriasis is a chronic non-contagious autoimmune disease that affects the skin and the joints.
It causes rapid skin cell reproduction resulting in red, dry patches of thickened skin.
An inflammatory reaction of the skin to physical, chemical, or biologic agents.
Common causes: soaps, detergents, scouring, compounds, and industrial chemicals.
Eruption begins when the causative agent contacts the skin.
Stages of Pressure Ulcers
Prevent pressure ulcers-early identification of those that are at risk. (Braden Scale) or other prevention protocols by agency.
Change positions (Turn client every two hours)
Perform routine hygiene or skin care.
Use support surfaces (pillows, wedges, etc.)
Provide nutritional support
Prevent friction and shear.
Educate client and family member how to prevent and treat.
Herpes Zoster (Shingles)
Any break or disruption in the normal integrity of the skin and tissues.
Types of wounds:
Intentional or unintentional
Open or closed
Acute or chronic
Factors Affecting Wound Healing
Age- (Children and healthy adults heal more rapidly).
Circulation and oxygenation- adequate blood flow is essential.
Nutritional status- healing requires adequate nutrition.
Intact skin, non-blanchable erythema (redness).
The area may be painful, firm, soft, warmer, or cooler as compared to adjacent tissue.
Full-thickness skin loss involving damage or necrosis to subcutaneous tissue.
Stage I Treatment
Off load pressure
Transparent film dressing
Partial- thickness skin loss involving the epidermis and/ or dermis.
Presents as an abrasion, blister, or a shallow open ulcer.
Full thickness skin loss with extensive destruction, tissue necrosis or damage to muscle, bone, or supporting structure (tendons, joints).
Depth of wound varies by anatomical location.
Exposed bone or tendon is visible or directly palpable.
Full-thickness tissue loss in which the base of the ulcer is covered by slough (yellow, tan,brown, or black in the wound bed.
The true depth of the owund cannot be determined until the slough or eschar is removed; therefore, the state cannot be determined.
Identify the at-risk population.
Braden Scale-most uses clinically; it includes 6 subscales (sensory perception, moisture, activity, mobility, nutrition, friction and shear.
Pre-albumin and Albumin levels
Depends on what the physician or wound care orders.
Albumin level<3.2mg/dl (Normal, 3.5-5mg/dl.
Prealbumin level<19mg/dl (normal 16-40mg/dl).
Inspect the wound.
Drains, Dressings, Documentation
Allows accurate measurement of drainage.
Prevents microorganisms from entering the wound from saturated dressings.
Open drainage system
Soft and flexible
No collection device
Used to secure dressings, apply pressure, and support the wound.
Make sure not too tight
Documenting Wound Care
Clear and accurate documentation
Type of wound
Drainage (Amount, color, consistency)
How client tolerted
Closed drainage system