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The Effects of Mining
Transcript of The Effects of Mining
Mrs. Ferrer Introduction (Slide 2) Necessary to sustain modern society
Integral part of our economy
Extraction and exploitation of mineral deposits from the lithosphere
Can be very detrimental to the environment
Environmental problems caused by mining effects all walks of life whether directly or indirectly Key Terms (Slide 3) Surface Mining
Slope Mining Surface Mining Close to or on the surface
Targets shallow mineral deposits like: Strip-Mining Mining on the surface in large, horizontal beds
Its economically avantageous due to low prices
Severely scars the land Area Strip-Mining Used in flat terrain areas
1. Earth mover strips overburden
2. Power shovel removes ore
3. Trench is filled in with overburden
4. Trench is dug adjacent to previous trench Overburden Contour Strip Mining Alexandrite
Uraninite http://www.ritchiewiki.com/wiki/index.php/Contour_Strip_Mining Occurs on a hill or mountain
Terraces are made around the hill
Very similar to area strip mining Mountaintop Removal Open-pit Mining Sub-surface Mining Locations of the World
Slide 5 (Slide #5) 70% of Iron Ore Production:
Democratic Republic of Congo
Tanzania and Congo
Largely South Africa, U.S., Canada, and Western Australia, and the ocean.
Brazil, Australia, Jamaica, the United States, Russia, Suriname, Venezuela, India, Guyana and Guinea. http://www.canadiangeographic.ca/atlas/themes.aspx?id=mining&sub=mining_coal_post1945&lang=En http://worldminingmaps.com/ http://www.mapsofworld.com/images/world-mineral-map.jpg Oil:
United Arab Emirates
France *Started 2009 Uranium from 2005-2012 (#5) http://www.world-nuclear.org/info/Nuclear-Fuel-Cycle/Mining-of-Uranium/World-Uranium-Mining-Production/#.UaUcf7XFXWY Effects of these Mines (#5) Why these areas are affected
Slide 6 http://www.southernenvironment.org/cases/mountaintop_removal_coal_mining Where the tops and sides of mountains are blown off using explosives
Reveals rich veins (Usually coal) underneath http://www.southernenvironment.org/images/photos/mountaintop_removal/mtr_llewellyn2.jpg http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/overburden The material on top of ore deposits
Considered useless to the mining operation
stones not part of the bedrock Thesis
(#4) http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/9a/Tagebau_Garzweiler_Panorama_2005.jpg http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Coal_mine_Wyoming.jpg http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Chino_copper_mine.jpg Successively smaller circles are dug
Open for duration of mine's use
Used to access bedrock level ores
Cheapest form of mine available http://www.mine-engineer.com/mining/open_pit.htm There are 3 types:
Shaft Drift Mining:
A tunnel is dug into the side of a mountain or hill
Not staight down or at a slope Slope:
Sloping shaft goes down
Not straight down http://www.greatmining.com/slope-mining.html Slide 9 - Ideas To Stop the Effects of Mining? Stop using harmful techniques
Reduce mineral consumption
Clean up abandoned mines
Get rid of chemicals
Abandoned mine killed 20 miles of the Animals River fishery in Colorado
Stop surface mining
Stop deforestation, etc.
More conscious about environment Shaft Mining:
Main shaft is perpendicular with smaller horizontal shafts
Deepest form of mine
Filled with cement when closed down to prevent collapse Drift Mining 1."Saskatchewan Eco Network • Issues." What You Can Do to Reduce Mining's Environmental Impacts • Saskatchewan Eco Network. Saskatchewan Eco Network, n.d. Web. 06 June 2013. Shaft Mining Slope Mining http://www.uky.edu/KGS/coal/images/Coal_mining_methods.jpg http://science.howstuffworks.com/engineering/structural/abandoned-mine.htm http://www.photosfan.com/mine/ Slide 10 - Cycles Affected By Mining Water Cycle
chemicals into streams, ect.
1995, water w/ cyanide got in river in Guyana
Loss of Habitat (Deforestation) http://www.docstoc.com/docs/22931502/Mining-Water-Pollution-Issues-in-BC In our opinion, surface mining is more detrimental to the environment than is beneficial. But, subsurface mining has very few negative aspects and thus should be utilized more frequently so long as the world governments start limiting the techniques allowed to be used. Slide 11 - Living Things Affected by Mining It is less harmful to the environment
The majority of the operation occurs underground
There is less loose sediment as there is very little overburden in the way http://www.nicholas.duke.edu/news/more-than-22-of-streams-in-southern-w.va.-damaged-by-mine-pollution Bibliography 2.Bose, Debopriya. "How Does Mining Affect the Environment?" Buzzle.com. Buzzle.com, 12 Mar. 2012. Web. 07 June 2013. Bibliography How Society Benefits from Mining (Slide 14) Mining is necessary for the economy
Important manufacturing materials and resources can only be obtained through mining
Employs around 20 million people world wide
Supports 100 million people
Provides necessary income for developing nations
Provides coal which is used in electric production http://www.greatmining.com/asbestos.html http://www.miningfacts.org/Economy/How-many-jobs-depend-on-the-mining-industry/ http://www.miningfacts.org/Communities/What-is-Artisanal-and-Small-Scale-Mining/ http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/569236/strip-mining http://www.ilcoalassn.com/surface.html http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/122975/coal-mining/81659/Mining-methods#toc81661 http://www.greatmining.com/drift-mining.html http://www.greatmining.com/shaft-mining.html Employment 1.5 million employed in developed nations
2.2 million in developing nations
13 million working for "Artisanal and small-scale mining" ASM Operate without licenses
Very dangerous for workers
Lacks modern machinery
Occurs in third-world countries
Supports 80 million people
Supplies 150 million people Asbestos Used in over 3000 products
fire resistant materials
5892 metric tonnes mined per year
Biggest mining country is Canada w/ 262.5 tonnes http://www.greatmining.com/copper.html Copper Used in all electronic devices
Used in currency
61% is mined in Arizona
Found in arid regions http://www.epa.gov/radiation/tenorm/copper.html Coal
Largest mined resource in US
Accounts for 44% of the production of electricity How Humans Are Reducing the Issue
(Slide 16) The Aquifer Protection Permit
Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act
Tanzanian National Environmental Policy
Fining of mines due to contamination http://www.azdeq.gov/environ/water/permits/app.html APP Any mine that discharges waste into water needs a permit to ensure:
The source is not used for drinking water
The deposit is being mined for commercial availability http://teeic.anl.gov/lr/dsp_statute.cfm?topic=12&statute=238 SMCRA Mine operators had to:
Restore the original terrain
Stop acid drippage into nearby water sources
Reintroduce vegetation to the area http://www.truthaboutsurfacemining.com/MiningRegulations/Permitting/Pages/ControlAndReclamationAct.aspx NEP Limited use of mercury in mining
Minimized toxic runoff and erosion http://www.tzonline.org/pdf/nationalenvironmentalpolicy.pdf Mining Companies Being Fined Peru fined Antamina $77,000 for toxic sludge spill at mine
Chile fines Barrick $16.1 million for releasing arsenic and sulfates into the water
China fined Zijin Mining $106,448 for releasing acid into a water source that poisoned 2,000 tonnes of fish http://www.miningenvironmental.com/enviromine/peru-fines-antaminas-owners-us$77,000-for-toxic-spill http://english.people.com.cn/90001/90778/90860/7244011.html http://media.knet.ca/node/22450 Negative Aspects of Asbestos Mining Negative Aspects of Copper Mining Negative Aspects of Coal Mining http://www.worldcoal.org/coal-the-environment/coal-mining-the-environment/ Negative Aspects of Gold Mining Negative Aspects of Sulfur Mining Negative Aspects of Uraninite Mining 40%is from surface mines
The US produces 1004 metric tonnes per year
67% of US coal is from surface mining
Mining releases methane
Acid Mine Drainage AMD water reacts with rocks exposed in coal mines
Heavy metals like copper, lead, and mercury are released into the runoff
The runoff takes the heavy metals into water sources Exposes workers to asbestos fibers
The fibers cause mesothelioma, lung cancer, and asbestosis Mining accounts for largest amount of metal mining wastes in US
Only 1 percent of mined ore is copper
Releases copper-containing dust into the air and groundwater How We Benefit from Gold Used as
Circuits as a semi-conductor
In spacecraft to deflect infrared radiation http://geology.com/minerals/gold/uses-of-gold.shtml 18-karats of gold creates 20 tonnes of waste
Processing of gold releases mercury into the air
Gold production is the #1 source of mercury
Ore is doused with cyanide during extraction
Gold tailings are full of arsenic http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2010/09/20/AR2010092004730.html How Sulfur Benefits Us Sulfur is used in:
Detergents http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/572661/sulfur-S/279409/Commercial-production#toc279410 When mined, releases hydrogen sulfide gas
Can be dissolved into water
Extremely poisonous How We Benefit From Uraninite Contains uranium, used for nuclear energy When mined, releases radon, a toxic gas
Exposes workers to radiation
Radioactive sediment can get into nearby water sources http://library.thinkquest.org/05aug/00461/uraninite.htm How We Are Part Of The Problem
(Slide 15) We do not recycle
We hoard precious metals
We use excess electricity Recycling Requires much less energy to reprocess metals than to mine more
90% energy used produces waste material during mining
Recycled aluminum uses 95% less energy than would take to mine more Hoarding Takes precious metals out of public circulation
Forces companies to extract more to keep up with demands Over-consumerism Society (Us) demands new products
Companies mine resources to create these products
We then demand more products forcing companies to mine more Electricity Production 44% is made with coal burning methods
19% is made through nuclear fission of uranium from uraninite
We demand more electricity forcing companies to mine more of the coal and uraninite http://www.world-nuclear.org/info/Country-Profiles/Countries-T-Z/USA--Nuclear-Power/#.UbNwE_mG18E http://www.google.com/imgres?um=1&sa=N&rlz=1C1CHFX_enUS507US507&hl=en&biw=1920&bih=979&tbm=isch&tbnid=wy9HaaHxfuBaVM:&imgrefurl=http://dominik-photography.com/indonesia-mining-photographer/&docid=QXZM_7eGR6P8rM&imgurl=http://dominik-photography.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/09/Indonesia-Mining-Photographs-01.jpg%253Fa0003c&w=1620&h=1080&ei=uHGzUcrIOLHj4APlz4GwCA&zoom=1&ved=1t:3588,r:95,s:0,i:385&iact=rc&dur=869&page=3&tbnh=179&tbnw=275&start=64&ndsp=36&tx=229&ty=72 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"Shaft Mining, Mining Techniques, Underground Mining, Mining Equipment, Surface Mining." Shaft Mining, Mining Techniques, Underground Mining, Mining Equipment, Surface Mining. N.p., n.d. Web. 08 June 2013. <http://www.greatmining.com/shaft-mining.html>.
"Slope Mining, Shaft Mining, Drift Mining, Mining Techniques, Coal Mining, Underground Mining,." Slope Mining, Shaft Mining, Drift Mining, Mining Techniques, Coal Mining, Underground Mining,. N.p., n.d. Web. 08 June 2013. <http://www.greatmining.com/slope-mining.html>.
"Sulfur (S) (chemical Element) : Commercial Production." Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica, n.d. Web. 08 June 2013. <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/572661/sulfur-S/279409/Commercial-production>.
"Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act (SMCRA) - Truth About Surface Mining." Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act (SMCRA) - Truth About Surface Mining. N.p., n.d. Web. 08 June 2013. <http://www.truthaboutsurfacemining.com/MiningRegulations/Permitting/Pages/ControlAndReclamationAct.aspx>.
"Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act (SMCRA)." Tribal Energy and Environmental Information Clearinghouse. Department of the Interior, n.d. Web. 8 June 2013. <http://teeic.anl.gov/lr/dsp_statute.cfm?topic=12&statute=238>.
"Surface Mining." Surface Mining. Illinois Coal Association, n.d. Web. 08 June 2013. <http://www.ilcoalassn.com/surface.html>.
"Merger to Create US Uranium Giant." World Uranium Mining 2011. N.p., n.d. Web. 09 June 2013. <http://www.world-nuclear.org/info/Nuclear-Fuel-Cycle/Mining-of-Uranium/World-Uranium-Mining-Production/>.
"More than 22% of Streams in Southern W.Va. Damaged by Mine Pollution." — Nicholas School of the Environment at Duke University. N.p., n.d. Web. 09 June 2013. <http://www.nicholas.duke.edu/news/more-than-22-of-streams-in-southern-w.va.-damaged-by-mine-pollution>.
"Oxfam Australia." Impacts of Mining. N.p., n.d. Web. 09 June 2013. <https://www.oxfam.org.au/explore/mining/impacts-of-mining/>.
"How Does Mining Affect the Environment." LoveToKnow. N.p., n.d. Web. 09 June 2013. <http://greenliving.lovetoknow.com/How_Does_Mining_Affect_the_Environment>.
"Mining, Murder and Mayhem: The Impact of the Mining Industry in the South." Mining, Murder and Mayhem: The Impact of the Mining Industry in the South. N.p., n.d. Web. 09 June 2013. <http://www.twnside.org.sg/title/mine-cn.htm>. This source is reliable because it is a transcript of the National Environmental Policy of Tanzania. The only unreliable possibility is that it is from 1997 and could have been amended or changed between then and now. This source is reliable because it is the official government website of Arizona. It is also up to date. The only problem is that it doesn't list the author of the page. This source is reliable because it is a website dedicated to mining facts and reviewed by experts of that field. The only problem is that it has not been updated in over one year. This source is reliable because it is a website solely dedicated to giving information about mining to the public. With that in mind, it does not say where the information came from or who wrote the articles. This source is reliable because the website is an index of mining techniques and equipment. But, it is not backed by any organization and is one year outdated. This source is reliable because it states that its facts and articles are cached version of those posted on the Canadian Press website. They include the author and date of publication which is very recent. The only problem is that the website itself is not backed by any organization and is merely copying other people's work. This source is reliable because the author lists his sources. One problem though is that the source used by the author is a book from 1992 which is probably outdated. This source is reliable because it is a Chinese website talking about events occurring in China. The one problem is that it has been translated and grammatical errors are evident. This source is reliable because it was published by a distinguished organization. It does not, however, list the author or sources. This source is reliable because it was published by the World Coal Association, which is a very distinguished and well-known group. The one downside is that it does not give the name of the author or date published. This source is reliable because it is located on a community based website devoted to educating people about mining. The one flaw is that anyone is able to edit it making some facts possibly unreliable. This source is reliable because the website is an index of mining techniques and equipment. But, it is not backed by any organization and is one year outdated. This source is reliable because it is published by the Environmental Protection Agency, a branch of the Department of the Interior. The one problem was that it was last updated 8-20-2012 This source is reliable because the website is an index of mining techniques and equipment. But, it is not backed by any organization and is one year outdated. This source is reliable because it was published by the Encyclopedia Britannica. It also includes the author. The one problem is that it does not mention when it was last updated. This source is reliable because it is a web-based news organization specializing in geology. One problem is that it lacks an author. This source is reliable because it is a website dedicated to mining facts and reviewed by experts of that field. The only problem is that it has not been updated in over one year. This source is reliable because it is an organization located in Virginia and specializing in the coal mines of its region. But, it does not provide an author's name or credentials. This source is reliable because it was published by the company that made the first American dictionary. The only flaw is that it does not state who came up with the provided definitions. This source is reliable because it was published by the Washington Post, one of the most prestigious newspapers in America. The article itself, though, is three years old and thus not as accurate to modern society as it once was. This website is reliable because it takes its statistics straight from the department of energy. But, the majority of these statistics are at least two years old even though it was last updated May 22, 2013. This source is reliable because the website is an index of mining techniques and equipment. But, it is not backed by any organization and is one year outdated. This source is reliable because the website is an index of mining techniques and equipment. But, it is not backed by any organization and is one year outdated. This source is most likely reliable because it was written by experts at the Encyclopedia Britannica offices. It does not give when it was last edited leaving me to decide whether the data and information is outdated. This source is reliable because it was written by a team of experts solely devoted to the negative aspects of surface mining. With that said, it could also be a small bit biased although it makes up for that with the facts that it gives. This source is reliable because it was posted by a United States group, the Tribal Energy and Environmental Conservation Clearinghouse, which is a subsidiary of the Department of the Interior. The one problem is that it does not provide a date of when it was last edited. This source is most likely reliable because it was published by the Illinois Coal Association which is an expert on coal consumption and mining. However, the data provided only goes up to 2009 and lacks any additional information suggesting that it has not been edited since then. Analyzation of Sources
(in order of sources on Bibliography 1) Slide 18 - Conclusion Overall, mining is a great way to get resources for business to use. However, it can be very harmful to our environment.
Thus, subsurface mining should only be used to stop deforestation and harmful runoff
We still must modify our methods and create greater restrictions over dumping
Society as a whole must also start recycling metals and stop demanding so many new products 3. "Abandoned Mine Impacts." Home. Trout Unlimited, n.d. Web. 08 June 2013. http://www.google.com/imgres?start=270&um=1&sa=N&rlz=1C1CHFX_enUS507US507&hl=en&biw=1360&bih=667&tbm=isch&tbnid=_PM3KiEIlAl_2M:&imgrefurl=http://business.financialpost.com/2013/05/06/quebec-government-to-raise-mining-royalty-rates/&docid=TAlko36MH71ImM&imgurl=http://financialpostbusiness.files.wordpress.com/2013/05/quebec-mining-royalties.jpg%253Fw%253D620&w=620&h=465&ei=neCzUc7WIfjG4AO2wIHICA&zoom=1&ved=1t:3588,r:74,s:200,i:226&iact=rc&dur=767&page=15&tbnh=182&tbnw=240&ndsp=20&tx=134&ty=88 Keller, Edward A., and E. M. Burt. Environmental Geology. 6th ed. Columbus, OH: Merrill, 1976. Print. It is reliable because it is a college level textbook published by Oxford University. The one bad thing is that it is over 30 years old. http://www.google.com/imgres?um=1&sa=N&biw=1360&bih=677&hl=en&tbm=isch&tbnid=o3l8yWEd48FcbM:&imgrefurl=http://www.frenkelers.com/services-products.html&docid=poKK6KT4dxr-iM&imgurl=http://www.frenkelers.com/images/common/polluted-stream.jpg&w=300&h=422&ei=COO0Ue6kNIz64AOAzoCACw&zoom=1&ved=1t:3588,r:0,s:0,i:86&iact=rc&dur=1646&page=1&tbnh=185&tbnw=126&start=0&ndsp=20&tx=57&ty=113 Animals
Loss of habitat
Miners hunt them
Dust from dynamite
Trees, forests, etc. http://www.google.com/imgres?um=1&sa=N&biw=1360&bih=677&hl=en&tbm=isch&tbnid=A9LbFULtIxC4OM:&imgrefurl=http://www.should-know.com/the-worlds-biggest-gold-mines/&docid=av1ZekQjH2tpzM&imgurl=http://www.should-know.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/04/Yanacocha-Gold-Mine-02.jpg&w=1280&h=802&ei=uee0UcWxJvXJ4AOh6IGgCQ&zoom=1&ved=1t:3588,r:35,s:0,i:207&iact=rc&dur=187&page=3&tbnh=178&tbnw=277&start=30&ndsp=20&tx=106&ty=83 Slide 12 - 5 ways it affects our area How the Issue is connected to making Money (Slide 7) What Ideas Make the Problem Worse (Slide 8) 1. Water pollution
Mercury found in fish in CT River
2. Land Removal
75 sand/ gravel pits
54 active mine companies
54 companies in CT
Frac Sand Mines
water consumption http://www.google.com/imgres?hl=en&biw=1360&bih=677&tbm=isch&tbnid=hUTVykRlbDJ52M:&imgrefurl=http://www.tommyersphotography.com/detail.asp%3FPhotoID%3D395&docid=vFdbcXhGO3-lHM&imgurl=http://www.tommyersphotography.com/data/photos/mine00008.jpg&w=350&h=235&ei=juy0UfmhFLTj4AP-4oCABQ&zoom=1&ved=1t:3588,r:6,s:0,i:105&iact=rc&dur=403&page=1&tbnh=179&tbnw=268&start=0&ndsp=10&tx=141&ty=92 Slide 13 - 5 Ways We Can Help 1. Use sub-surface mining
Help stop deforestation
Stop ruining habitats
2. Consume less from mines
3. Dispose of waste properly
Don't dump/wash into rivers
4. Pass Acts to regulate laws
5. Use less harmful techniques http://www.google.com/imgres?hl=en&biw=1360&bih=677&tbm=isch&tbnid=I-9yptnGZyTuqM:&imgrefurl=http://www.nps.gov/olym/naturescience/elwha-faq.htm&docid=A1o2HveFycsKCM&imgurl=http://www.nps.gov/olym/naturescience/images/Elwha-River-log-Scott-Church-copy.jpg&w=2140&h=1685&ei=ie60UZa9GYqY0QGyt4G4Bw&zoom=1&ved=1t:3588,r:1,s:0,i:91&iact=rc&dur=2671&page=1&tbnh=184&tbnw=237&start=0&ndsp=11&tx=131&ty=44 http://www.google.com/imgres?um=1&rlz=1C1CHFX_enUS507US507&hl=en&biw=1360&bih=667&tbm=isch&tbnid=1gN7bBgnMW2FJM:&imgrefurl=http://ludolik.deviantart.com/art/Minecraft-Moment-of-impact-209969679&docid=A_p19jcnbukuwM&imgurl=http://fc00.deviantart.net/fs71/f/2011/143/b/3/minecraft___moment_of_impact_by_ludolik-d3h0dn3.png&w=854&h=480&ei=mO-0Uf7SDtS_0QGtooGgDQ&zoom=1&ved=1t:3588,r:49,s:0,i:243&iact=rc&dur=737&page=4&tbnh=168&tbnw=250&start=44&ndsp=18&tx=185&ty=86 http://www.google.com/imgres?um=1&rlz=1C1CHFX_enUS507US507&hl=en&biw=1360&bih=667&tbm=isch&tbnid=lLvT-BqmJKF4RM:&imgrefurl=http://www.coalleader.com/longwall_mining.htm&docid=b8UqpqFiM5vWmM&imgurl=http://www.coalleader.com/photos/Longwall_Mining.jpg&w=491&h=351&ei=nvC0UfLeEKHZ0wGp94GgCQ&zoom=1&ved=1t:3588,r:17,s:0,i:139&iact=rc&dur=441&page=2&tbnh=179&tbnw=238&start=10&ndsp=20&tx=143&ty=95 1.This source is reliable because it is published by a network. The information was looked over carefully before it was published. Also the article is easy to navigate and has no grammatical errors. 2. This source had alot of specific facts that are correct. The article is organized well and doesn't have any mistakes. It was also updated in January 2013 3. This source was reliable because it was published by a group that specializes in wildlife protection. 4. "Compare Active Mines in Connecticut." www.findthedata.org. Find The Data, n.d. Web. 09 June 2013. 4. This source was reliable because it came from a company who deals with statistics. This source was only used to obtain how many active mining companies there are in CT and it accurately gave me that information. 5. "Effect of Mining Activities on Wildlife." Effect of Mining Activities on Wildlife. USGS, 2 Oct. 2007. Web. 09 June 2013. 5. This source was reliable because it came from an environmental center, so I know the information is reliable. The only bad thing is the article was last updated in 2007. 6.Prengaman, Kate. "Welcome!" Madison.com. The Cap Times, 03 Mar. 2013. Web. 09 June 2013. 6. This article can be trusted because the author is from the Wisconsin Center for Investigative Journalism. Also, the information was last updated on Mach 3, 2013 People The Land forces people to leave their homes and land
prevents people from accessing clean land and water
impacts their health and livelihoods
causes divisions in communities over who benefits from the mine and who doesn’t
changes the social dynamics of a community
harassment by mine or government security
Skin rashes to cancer from the chemicals More than 22% of streams in southern West Virginia damaged by mine pollution
Only 5% of land mined away can affect 22%-32% of the mining region's rivers
10 years the mines in southern West Virginia could degrade 1,400 miles of streams and rivers
Ryan S. King, associate professor of biology at Baylor- “Our analysis shows that coal mining is leading to widespread declines in aquatic biodiversity in Appalachian streams.” re-configures the land and its contours
Rain and groundwater is diverted
Cyanide, mercury, methyl-mercury and arsenic are forced through pipes (tailings)
Effects can spread
Affects nesting habits
trees cut down or dye from chemicals Mining above ground less expensive
Above ground more to blame for environmental problems
Underground mining is safer
Makes more money and manpower
Easier way most detrimental
Money depends on results of mining Cyanide and other chemicals used that deteriorate land and water
No one tries to restore the land after it has been dug away
Subsurface mines create giant openings under the surface and weaken the land
Man made caves not re-filled
People think mines can be forgotten http://business.financialpost.com/2013/02/06/the-pirate-ninja-gold-miners-who-are-going-to-war-with-the-worlds-mining-giants-at-oyu-tolgoi/