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The Conflict between the Pope and the King during the Middle Ages

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Hannah Hullihen

on 21 March 2014

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Transcript of The Conflict between the Pope and the King during the Middle Ages

The Winning Conclusion
Both the kings and the popes have an extremely high amount of power. The pope has the power of the people, for many people that lived in the middle ages were devoted to their religion, an in this case the pope. The kings were the supreme rulers of their kingdoms. They often won their rightful place on the throne by winning tough battles. The king's subjects had to obey whatever he commanded; the king maintained this power by taxing his subjects. This ongoing battle for power went on for ages an one question remains up for debate: Which ruler had more power that the other?

The Ongoing War
During the time of the Middle Ages there were many ongoing conflicts between the pope and the king. Both the pope and the king had different strengths and roles when it came to fulfilling their duties as leaders. Each leader also had their own thirst for power. With any further action by one leader, however, the other stood in the way of their goal.
The Pope
The pope is known as the religious leader of the Holy Roman Catholic Church. The pope belonged to the group known as the secular clergy. This clergy lived among the ordinary people, but were permitted to preach the gospel and deliver the
to others. The pope's duty was to be God's messenger or representative that lived on the Earth. The pope also decided what the church would teach to its followers. In order to do this, the pope had a special group of counselors known as the
, being the most important members of the curia, became the ones who elected the new pope in 1059. The pope maintained his power by punishing those who went against the church. He did this by the process of
. This punishment was greatly feared by people, because they believed that if you were excommunicated, then you wouldn't go to heaven. The popes were also known as spiritual and political rulers in the
Papal States
. Like the state, the church had the power of taxation, and often collected the
, from its people.Many of the popes claimed that the church had the ultimate supreme power.
The King
The king was known as the head of the state or monarch. During the Middle ages, many nations as well as kingdoms gained their power through their military strength. Certain men were able to rise as kings from their ability to convince other leaders and their people to follow their lead. This was usually achieved by the winnings of war and their victories on the battlefield. Once ruler of their kingdom, a king's duty was to protect his people from harm and unjust. In order to achieve this, the king gave parts of his land to lords or
. In return for the land, the Lords promised the king to defend his land. The king expected his people to obey all his commands and wishes, even if his wishes were unfair. The king collected tax from his people in order to keep them from rebelling. In order to determine a successful system of taxation, one king, William the Conqueror, sent commissioners to collect information on everyone in the country of England. This became a book known as
The Doomsday Book
King Henry IV and Pope Gregory VII's fight for power was on the issue of lay investiture. It all started when Emperor Henry IV believed that he had the power to appoint bishops. In rage of this belief, Pope Gregory VII demanded that his subjects were to pick another emperor. In fear that his subjects might follow this demand, the emperor climbed the frigid peaks up to the castle at Canossa, and waited 3 days outside the pope's doors until he was allowed to come in. There he made an agreement to the pope and Pope Gregory VII turned away this demand. However, the battle continued on tho Henry's son. It wasn't until 1122 that the argument ended with the treaty known as the Concordant of Worms.
The Conflict between the Pope and the King during the Middle Ages
Vassal: A person granted land from a lord(or king) in return for services.
Tithe: church tax collected from Christians in early times that represented one tenth of their income.
Sacraments: special ceremonies at which participants receive the direct favor, or grace, of Go to help them ward off the consequences of Sin.
Interdict: church's punishment of an entire region, involving closing churches an withholding sacraments.
Curia: The pope's council that gives him advice on his actions and decisions.
Pope Innocent III vs. King John
Pope Innocent III was known as the most daunting opponent to European rulers. Pope Innocent III believed that he was the supreme ruler; he believed that he was even more powerful than the emperors and kings. In order to prove that, he used his powers of interdict and excommunication as much as he wanted to. This led to King John under
when Pope Innocent III got into a quarrel with him. In order to get rid of the interdict, King John had to become the pope's vassal. Pope Innocent was so powerful that he dominated all of Italy and overthrew two rulers in Germany in replacement for his own.
Emperor Henry IV vs. Pope Gregory VII
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