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Transcript of Markan Criticism
theology in two ways
1. Political and social liberation
2. Spiritual Liberation Black Liberation James Cone identified the cosmic struggle for civil rights amongst the black community with the Exodus freedom narrative. Surplus extraction by Rome
Poll taxes and tariffs
Tithes and Passover extractions by religious institutions
The “Galilean Jewish peasant found himself in the rather
strange position that those very people to whom he felt
bound by ties of national and religious loyalty, the
priestly aristocracy, were in fact his social
oppressors.” Mark 1:21-28: The Sabbath
Mark 1:29-41: The Outcasts
Mark 1:40-45: Breaking the Priests
Mark 6:30-44 and 8:1-21: Economy of Sharing Narrative Criticism Structure Threads Theme Setting Characters Key Words and and And AND & and And and & and AND & Echo Principle Predictive & Retrospective Suppliant Setting Issue Special Numbers Repetitions Chiasms
A A Markan Sandwiches Repetitions Repetitions Listening Audience Media Criticism Mark 12:13-17 Mark was meant to be experienced Visual, Oral, Interactive Benefits Narrator
Understanding of characters
Understanding of tone Audience
Immersion into the story world
Kinesthetic experience Early Writings/Opinions of Mark Mark was considered to be an abstract of Matthew
In the Fifteenth century a commentary was compiled by Victor of Antioch
The birth of the “Markan Hypothesis” Karl Lachmann A collection of literary studies called attention to the relationship between the Gospels
Concluded that Mark was older and drew upon an older written or oral source. C.H. Weisse The first theologian to propose the “two- source Hypothesis”, or the “Markan Hypothesis.
Both state that Mark is first and earliest Gospel. System der Ästhetik (2 vols., 1830)
Die Idee der Gottheit (1833)
Die philosophische Geheimlehre von der Unsterblichkeit des menschlichen Individuums (1834)
Büchlein von der Auferstehung (1836)
Die evangelische Geschichte, kritisch und philosophisch bearbeitet (2 vols., 1838)
Die Evangelienfrage in ihrem gegenwärtigen Stadium (1856)
Psychologie und Unsterblichkeitslehre (edited by R Seydel, 1869). Authorship of Mark A page, found in the sands of Egypt, from a Coptic version of the gospel of Mark, in the Perkins School of Theology collection The gospel of Mark is anonymous.
External Evidence Date of Mark Tradition says that it was written in ad 70
Attempts have been made to date earlier Location/Audience Tradition says that Mark was written in and Rome and for a Roman audience.
Scholars suggest that language inside Mark allude to a Syrian atmosphere and hints to the Jewish war. Criticisms Source Criticism: Source criticism is when scholars are able to accurately put together an accurate time line of Jesus’ life and ministry
Form Criticism: This type of criticism took the Gospel of Mark and was able to make a time line of Jesus and His ministry
Redaction Criticism: This form of criticism involves an extensive look at the author’s theology and point of view
Narrative Criticism: A development in biblical studies, especially in USA, since about 1970. The main thesis is that readers (e.g. of the gospels) should read the narratives and respond to them as the authors hoped. Narrative criticism invites the reader to assess the work as a whole and to note its stylistic characteristics which resemble those of other literary works with a beginning, a middle, and an end. Cone, James. A Black Theology of Liberation. Twentieth Anniversary Edition. Maryknoll: Orbis Books, 1997.
Horsley, Richard. Jesus and Empire. 1st ed. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2003.
Myers, Ched. Binding the Strong Man: A Political Reading of Mark's Story of Jesus. Twentieth Anniversary Edition. Maryknoll: Orbis Books, 2008.
Rowland, Christopher. The Cambridge Companion to Liberation Theology. 2nd ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007.
Theissen, Gerd. The Shadow of the Galilean. 1st ed. Minneapolis: Augsburg Fortress Publishers, 1987. Conclusion