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Lesson 13-14 Reaction Time/Anticipation/PRP

AS OCR Acquiring Movement Skills
by

Joe Crane

on 18 September 2014

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Transcript of Lesson 13-14 Reaction Time/Anticipation/PRP

Decision Making
The Performer is Crucial
Choices
The Translation Process
Response Selection Stage
So how do you improve it?
Practice
Coaching
Highlight Cues

REACTION TIME
The time between the onset of a stimulus and the start of the movement in response to it
Should I catch the ball?
If so, how?

MANY PROCESSES COME TOGETHER TO MAKE DECISIONS
Think of this process of taking place in a tube, once you have entered you cannot leave until the process is completed
Single Channel Hypothesis - until one stimulus has had a decision made, another one cannot be acted upon. The system can therefore become overloaded, and is therefore more efficient if tasks can be dealt with 'free' from other matters
The depth/wealth of performers knowledge
His/her ability to detect clues early influences time needed
As skill level increases 'outside interference' is ignored

SKILLED PERFORMERS ARE BETTER THAN NOVICES
(the novice is trying to take in too much information and therefore decision making is slow)
What movement to make based on the nature of the environment
Reaction time
is, to a large extent genetically determined (Psychomotor Ability)

Gender
- Male RT is quicker
Age
- RT slows as you get older
Limb
- Further the impulse has to travel the
slower RT
Personality
- Extroverts react quicker
Body Temperature
- Warm body reacts quicker

Arousal
- Optimal level will to aid RT
Who is quicker?
or
Movement Time
The time from when a movement is initiated to when it is completed
Movement time is determined by
Muscle fibre type
Muscle fibre strength
Level of learning of the motor programme
ALL IMPROVED BY PRACTICE
Response Time
The time from the signal being presented to the response being complete
Response Time = Reaction Time + Movement Time
Choice Reaction time
The time taken between the stimulus and action which requires choice
Simple Reaction time
The time taken to start a single response to a single stimulus
The sprinter is quicker because;
Using simple RT
Audible quicker than visual?

AND REMEMBER A SKILLED PERFORMER WILL IMPROVE CHOICE RT
The more choices that are available, the slower the choice RT
HICK'S LAW
As the number of choices increases, so does RT
Other issues with choice RT
'stimulus response compatability' - left and right
Presenting the same stimuli all the time makes it easier for your opponent as they could use 'simple RT'
Anticipation
Skilled performers seem to have more time, why?
But what happens if the opponent uses deception?
A dummy?
There is always a short delay while the performer is deciding how to repond to a stimulus. During this time the performer is unable to respond to further stimuli. If a second stimulus is given the reaction time is much slower than normal - this is the
Psychological Refractory Period
This is of course how the single channel hypothesis is illustrated
This is why fakes and dummies are so effective
Player starts to move right
Players starts to move left
PRP
Opponent starts to cover move
Opponent begins to change direction
The Psychological Refractory Period
If a warning is given
- if you expect a stimulus you will react quicker
Intensity of the stimulus
- Loud sounds or bright colours stimulate quicker reactions.
The likelihood of the stimulus occurring
- If the stimulus has ha a good chance of occurring you will react quicker.
Influenced by External Factors:
Internal Factors Affecting Reaction Time:
THE SKILLED PERFORMER MAY BE PROCESSING INFORMATION BEFORE THE EVENT
Temporal -
the performers predict what is about to happen
Spatial -
performer programmes a patter of movement prior to the movement being needed
Full transcript