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Aristotle

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Ahron Mack

on 27 August 2015

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Transcript of Aristotle

Aristotle
(384-322BCE)
ETHOS
An appeal rooted in the character & credibility of the speaker.
PATHOS
LOGOS
An appeal rooted in the logic and rationality of the message.
TELOS
"A term Aristotle used to explain the particular purpose or attitude of a speech."

"Drawing support from the particular time, setting, & place."
Integration into environment. Knowledge of audience attitudes.
KAIROS
MYTH·OS
ˈmiTHōs,-äs/
noun
technical
noun: mythos; plural noun: mythoi

1. a myth or mythology.
-(in literature) a traditional or recurrent narrative
theme or plot structure.

-a set of beliefs or assumptions about something.

Origin: mid 18th cent.: from Greek.
MYTHOS
-20 yrs old

-Clifton, Nottingham, UK

-Self-titled (2012)
Shangri-La (2013)

An appeal to cultural values and beliefs.
-En Esch,
Sascha Konietzko

-Germany,
Chicago, IL.

-Angst (1993)
Nihil (1995)
Symbols (1997)
Songs: Lightning Bolt, Kingpin, Taste It, Note to Yourself
Songs: Juke Joint Jezebel, Megalomaniac, Son of a Gun
-Begun in 1990

-Braintree, Essex

-One guy:
Liam Howlet
Songs: Their Law, Voodoo People, Breathe, Invaders Must Die
Where can one find MODERN MYTHOLOGY?
In MUSIC!
APPLICATION

Investigate the reasons why people text and drive.

Why do we continue to do it when we know
it is literally a matter of life and death?

Write an effective thesis for this speech
that targets audience mythos by employing Aristotelian appeals.
MYTHOS is the beliefs and values learned through cultural stories.
What do you learn from your music?
PLANNING A PERSUASIVE ARGUMENT
Topic: Texting and Driving
This type of appeal is central in persuasive speeches because
CRACKING
a person's
MYTHOS is the KEY
to successful persuasion!
1.
https://www.google.com/search?q=mythos&ie=utf-8&oe=utf-8&aq=t&rls=org.mozilla:en-US:official&client=firefox-a&channel=sb
...and the stories too!
INVENTION
STYLE
MEMORY
DELIVERY
ARRANGEMENT
Refers the moment of your inspiration; epiphany.
Refers to the OUTLINE and organization of your ideas,
from the order of subtopics to the exact placement of specific words.
Refers to your smooth use of language to deliver an excellent speech.
Refers to your expertise of subject matter and consciousness of effective public speaking techniques;
not just remembering your speech!
Refers to your use of facial expressions, gestures, and body during the presentation.
Cicero
(106-43 BCE)
What is the significance of Public Speaking?
Self confidence, comfort around others, generate sales, effective methodology, eventually, make
difference
in life, business, community (6), boost performance,
demo

knowledge
,
improve knowledge
, differentiate within workforce, form a tribe.
"...if you want to be a leader, you had better be able to communicate."
"...[provide] students and professionals with communication skills and strategies that are essential to success."
Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent, a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal.

Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met on a great battle-field of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field, as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this.
But, in a larger sense, we can not dedicate -- we can not consecrate -- we can not hallow -- this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note, nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us -- that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion -- that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain -- that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom -- and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.

Abraham Lincoln
November 19, 1863
http://www.abrahamlincolnonline.org/lincoln/speeches/gettysburg.htm
11:58
Public Speaking changes the world.

That is why this class matters.

That is why you are here.
So when you speak, reach out!
< WHY ARE YOU HERE? >
Mixed Martial Public Speaking
Conan the Barbarian
- Orphan
- Pit Fighting Champion
- Lover
- Killed Thulsa Doom
- King
-Ethical Champion
ETHICS
"...
Ethics
refers to well-founded
standards of right and wrong
that prescribe what humans ought to do, usually in terms of rights, obligations, benefits to society, fairness, or specific virtues."

- See more at: http://www.scu.edu/ethics/practicing/decision/whatisethics.html#sthash.5dZFjeZh.dpuf
Where do we get ethics?
Normative
Applied
"...the study of what makes actions right and wrong."
How do we orientate our ethical compass?
"...attempts to apply ethical theory to real-life situations."
How will ethics determine my path?
-http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethics
-http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethics
Family - Friends -
Religion - School -
Government -
Media
The Boondock Saints
-Brothers
-Exceptionally multilingual
-Ordained by God to "destroy that which is evil so that good may flourish."

TIME

AND

PLACE

ARE
IMPORTANT!
WHY?
...Because human nature is an evolutionary impetus...


im·pe·tus
ˈimpədəs/
noun
noun: impetus

-
the force or energy with which a body moves.
"hit the booster coil before the flywheel loses all its impetus"

synonyms: momentum, propulsion, impulsion, motive force, driving force, drive, thrust; More
energy, force, power, push, strength
"the flywheel lost all its impetus"

-
the force that makes something happen or happen more quickly.
Do you possess the constitution?
Can you read?
We must move beyond fallacies and the institutionalized values with which we are comfortable.

WE MUST DETERMINE A CODE OF CONDUCT BASED ON AN AUTHENTIC COMMONALITY.
Noam Chomsky
-Linguist, Foreign Policy Scholar
at MIT, revolutionized the field.
How do Chomsky's ideas orientate our ethical compass?
Where does Conan fit?
Where does Boondock Saints fit?
"If it is correct, as I believe it is, that a
fundamental element
of
human nature
is the need for creative work or creative inquiry, for
free creation
without the arbitrary limiting effects of coercive institutions, then of course it will follow that
a decent society
should
maximize the possibilities
for this fundamental human characteristic to be realized."
NOAM
BOONDOCK SAINTS
"Do not kill.

Do not rape.

Do not steal."
Conan
"Crush your enemies,

see them driven before you,

and to hear the lamentation of their women."
TEST
and now, a little
the Ethics of Hooper X
-Directed by Kevin Smith
(1997)
As we judge, so shall we be judged.
VICTORY/
SUCCESS IN BATTLE
-
Creativity

is
at least one aspect of
human nature
-
The most important?
From creativity all else flows.
-
Language is the evidence
.
-"
Communication
is the
fundamental social behavior
that links one human being to another."
Stephanie J. Coopman, James Lull, Public Speaking: The Evolving Art (Mason, OH: Cengage Learning, 2013), 44.

.
Ethics and Public Speaking
HATE SPEECH
-words that attack groups such as
racial, ethnic, religious, and sexual
minorities.
-
NEVER ACCEPTABLE
-
two
major ways hate speech
can be damaging.
Hurt to groups being degraded.
Fear-based self-censorship
Plagarism
- taking someone else's ideas or work and presenting them as your own
Oral Citations
- brief verbal references to your sources during your speech
Ethnocentrism
- when individuals think
their view of the world is superior based
on their culture
The notion of having the best perspective must be defeated if understanding between the speaker and audience is to occur.

But how?



How can this be done in a persuasive speech?
http://www.princeton.edu/~achaney/tmve/wiki100k/docs/Cultural_relativism.html
Information Overload
- receiving too much information and being unable to process it in a meaningful way
Listening Anxiety
- stems from the fear of misunderstanding or not understanding what a speaker is saying
Cultural Relativism
-principle that an individual human's beliefs and activities should be
understood by others in terms of that
individual's own culture.
Stephanie J. Coopman, James Lull, Public Speaking: The Evolving Art (Mason, OH: Cengage Learning, 2013), 44.
Stephanie J. Coopman, James Lull, Public Speaking: The Evolving Art (Mason, OH: Cengage Learning, 2013), 47.
Stephanie J. Coopman, James Lull, Public Speaking: The Evolving Art (Mason, OH: Cengage Learning, 2013), 49.
Stephanie J. Coopman, James Lull, Public Speaking: The Evolving Art (Mason, OH: Cengage Learning, 2013), 52.
Stephanie J. Coopman, James Lull, Public Speaking: The Evolving Art (Mason, OH: Cengage Learning, 2013), 53.
Stephanie J. Coopman, James Lull, Public Speaking: The Evolving Art (Mason, OH: Cengage Learning, 2013), 55.
The final arbiter of meaning is the audience.
Meaning:
your speech begins and ends with the audience
.
You write it for them, deliver it to them, and they ultimately decide on its meaning.
http://southpark.cc.com/clips/103645/gingervitus

Language and Public Speaking
Language
- a system of words
Words = Symbols
Symbol -
something that stands for something else
Sign Composition
Samurai
Stephanie J. Coopman, James Lull, Public Speaking: The Evolving Art (Mason, OH: Cengage Learning, 2013), 53.
Miyamoto Musashit, The Book of Five Rings, trans. Thomas Cleary (Boston, MA: Shambhala Publications, 1993), xiv.
"to serve as
an attendant"
"Myamoto Musashi's work is devoted to the art of war as a purely pragmatic enterprise. Musashi decries empty showmanship and commercialization in martial arts, focusing attention on the
psychology
and
physics
of lethal assualt and
decisive
victory as the essence of warfare."
Miyamoto Musashit, The Book of Five Rings, trans. Thomas Cleary (Boston, MA: Shambhala Publications, 1993), xviii.
SEMIOTICS
the study of signs
the Way
the Weather
the Terrain
the Leadership
the Discipline
Master Sun's
5 Assessments

"The Way means inducing the people to have the same aim as the leadership, so that they will share death and share life, without fear of danger."
for us, this means: THE MESSAGE
"The Terrain is to be assessed in terms of distance, difficulty or ease of travel, dimension, and safety."
for us, this means: MAXIMIZING THE ARRANGEMENT AND USE OF
OUR SPEAKING SPACE
"The weather means the seasons."
for us, this means: THE COMMUNICATION CLIMATE, CURRENT ATTITUDES, AND ZEITGEIST.
"Leadership is a matter of intelligence, trustworthiness, humaneness, courage, and sterness."
for us, this means: THE CREDIBILITY OF THE SPEAKER
"Discipline means organization, chain of command, and logistics."
for us, this means: THE OUTLINE AND DEMONSTRATED
KNOWLEDGE OF PUBLIC SPEAKING SKILL
- a binary construct!
Sign
Meaning
Denotative -
Connotative -
agreed upon,
dictionary, scholarly
personal
associations
Language is...
...Arbitrary
...Abstract
...Active
...Ambiguous
the 5
Arts of Public Speaking
Confidence Building Techniques
- Start early
- Choose a topic you care about
- Be an expert on your topic
- Research your audience
- Know your intro and conclusion well

- Record and time yourself when you...
PRACTICE
remember
Be JAMES BOND.
Dress the part

...and
ILLUSION OF
TRANSPARENCY
- A notion triggered by your anxiety that causes you to think the audience can see your inner emotional state.
Oral Citations
- Contribute to the rationality and reasonability
of the message.

-
ASSESS
sources of information by their

validity
,
currency
, and
reliability
.

- Use APA Style in your outlines.
https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/section/2/10/



- a short and amusing or interesting story
about a real incident or person.

- synonyms: story, tale, narrative,
incident;
Anecdotes
the "
3

Proofs
"
The Way of the Samurai is found in death. When it comes to either/or, there is only the quick choice of death. Be determined and advance. To say that dying without reaching one's aim is to die a dog's death is the frivolous way of sophisticates. When pressed with the choice of life or death, it is not necessary to achieve one's aim.

We all want to live. And
in large part we make our logic according to what we like
. But not having attained our aim and continuing to live is cowardice. This is a thin dangerous line... If
by setting one's heart right every morning and evening
, one is able to live as though they were already dead,
he
gains freedom
in the Way. His whole life will be without blame, and he
will succed
in his calling.
Tsunetomo, Yamamoto, Hagakure The Book of the Samurai, trans. William Scott Wilson (New York, NY: Kodansha International, 1983), 23-24.
.
A constitution...
https://www.google.com/search?q=anecdote&ie=utf-8&oe=utf-8
-Common sense does not exist. Different people's
experiences are too varied
.

-
Human Nature
-The most intelligent man alive?
How will we determine our success as public speakers?
An
excellent delivery
is the
goal
.
A perfect delivery does not exist.
What characteristics do you think an excellent delivery should have?
How will you know if you're prepared for your speech when the time comes to deliver?
This will be our way of knowing success from failure, right and wrong, in preparation for your speeches.
512 BCE
206 BCE
symbol
or
object
what is
meant
signifier + signified
So, language is...
Tricky
M eaning
A ccuracy
C larity

= K nowledge
This results in a transformation of our primary
general purpose
(GP.) as public speakers.

To Inform
becomes
To Educate
.

This
remains true
even when our
general purpose becomes
To Persuade
.

To Educate
and
To Persuade
are our TWO
General Purposes
as public speakers.
An appeal rooted in the evocation of audience members' emotions
Oral Citations
also
drastically

improve
ETHOS
.
See the link below.
Outlining
GP
: To Educate or To Persuade
SP
: To Educate or Persuade about "X."
OP
: Outline Pattern

INTRODUCTION
I. Gain Attention
II. Establish Credibility
III. State Thesis/ Purpose
IV. Preview Main Points



BODY
I. Main Point #1
A. Support
1. Content
a. Deep Content
b. Deep Content
2. Content
a. Deep Content
b. Deep Content



B. Support
1. Content
a. Deep Content
b. Deep Content
2. Content
a. Deep Content
b. Deep Content

II. Main Point #2

<Repeat>



CONCLUSION
I. Review Main Points
II. Reinforce Purpose
III. Provide Closure
TRANSITION
: Smooths the movement between ideas.
TRANSITION
: Directs the attention of the audience.
TRANSITION
: Builds cadence and flow.
Sample Pattern
Balanced
&
Logical
4 Functions
Preface
3 Functions
7 Patterns of Organization
1.
Topical
subtopics of equal importance
2.
Spatial
arranged by geographical location
3.
Chronological
time sequence
4.
Narrative
ideas follow the logic of a story's plot
5.
Cause
/
Effect
exposing the root and/or result of situation
6.
Problem
/
Solution
exploring a dilemma and/or fix for a situation
7.
Monroe's Motivated Sequence
www.hawaii.edu/mauispeech/pdf/mspsamplerak.pdf
On the battleground of the Public Speaking arena,
VICTORY
amounts to an
EXCELLENT DELIVERY
.
A perfect delivery does not exist.
Do not strive for one.
Do not strive to deliver the same speech every time you practice.
Instead, strive to present an excellent version of your speech when you stand and deliver.
Deception
Omission
-
Falsification
-
Equivocation
-
3 Types
lying
leaving out specific details
intentional vagueness,
comparison of dissimilar things

Griffin, Em. (2003). A first look at communication theory. Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill.
coined the
term
rhetoric
Aristotle's word for public speaking
Persuasive Purposes
GP
:
To

Persuade
Our general purpose is always to educate, but becomes directed on an agenda in persuasive speaking.
Question of
Fact
-
Value
-
Policy
-
true or false
something's worth
course of action
Framing your argument properly is essential to success in persuasion.

Without specific and intentional framing,
your
message will not be focused
,
it will
not be adapted to your audience,
and you will
not succeed in rallying
support
for your cause.
Fallacies
Making Claims
Argument
Premise
-
Conclusion
-
2 Types
reasons to support a conclusion
[ main points ]
primary claim
[ thesis ]
:
errors in arguments
Critical Implications of Public Speaking:
3 Essential characteristics
of an informative speech
freedom of expression,
diversity of perspective,
tolerance of dissent.
and
Endorse
A military operation involves deception.
Even though you are competent, appear to be incompetent. Though effective, appear to be ineffective.
Master Sun -
Full transcript