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anetta ash

on 20 September 2012

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Transcript of Egyptian's

photo credit Nasa / Goddard Space Flight Center / Reto Stöckli gods and goddesses of Egypt goddesses 1st god gods Aker (Akeru, Akerui)

The double lion god

Symbols: akhet

Depiction: Depictions showed Aker as a double-headed lion or two lions sitting back-to-back with the sun and sky appearing between them. The two lions form the Egyptian symbol for the sky, akhet. The lions were named Sef (Yesterday) and Duau (Today).

Mythology: The Egyptian believed that Aker, an earth-god, guarded the gates of dawn and sunset through which the sun rose every morning and set every evening. The ancient Egyptians placed statues of Aker at the doors of palaces and tombs to ward off evil spirits and malicious entities. Statues of Aker often were given the heads of men and women, which the ancient Greeks referred to as sphinxes. Ammut (Ammit, Ahemait)

The dead devourer

Depiction: A goddess, Ammut was depicted with the head of a crocodile, the forequarters of a lion, and the hindquarters of a hippopotamus.

Mythology: Ammut was a soul-eating monster. She witnessed the judgment of the dead in the "Hall of the Two Truths,” Maaty. Before souls could enter the afterlife they had to pass judgment by Osiris. As the king of the underworld, Osiris admitted only those souls who had lived good lives and who had received the proper burial rights under the protection of certain amulets and the recitation of certain words of power and divinity. To judge if a soul was worthy of entering the afterlife, the deceased’s heart was placed on one side of the Scales of Truth and a feather of Ma’at on the other side. If the heart, where the Egyptians believed the soul dwelled, was heavy with sins and out weighed Ma’at’s feather, Ammut ate the soul dooming it to eternal death. If the heart weighed equal to Ma’at’s feather the soul earned eternal life in the Duat, a fertile land Hapi (Hapy)

Father of the gods

Symbols: running water

Depiction: Though a male deity, Hapi is depicted as a man with breasts and a round belly, which indicated nourishment and fertility. Since Hapi represented both the upper and lower Nile, he was depicted wearing papyrus plants when he represented Lower Egypt and lotus plants when he represented Upper Egypt. Depictions of Hapi, combining his oversight of both Upper and Lower Egypt, showed him holding both the papyrus and lotus plants in his hands.

Mythology: A male deity, Hapi is the oldest of the Egyptian gods whose name is an evolution of the ancient Egyptian word for Nile, hep. Hapi’s domain was divided into two parts, Upper (northern) Egypt and Lower (southern) Egypt. Hapi of Upper Egypt was called Hap-Reset. Hapi of Lower Egypt was called Hap-Meht. Since Hapi had two domains he also had two wives. In the north, there was Buto who was depicted as a cobra. In the south, there was Nekhebet who was depicted as a vulture. Among the pantheon of Egyptian gods, Hapi was one of the greatest. Egyptian mythology says that Hapi was the creator of all things, including the universe. Hapi was believed to have risen out of the earth between the two mountains, Qer-Hapi and Mu-Hapi between the islands of Elephantine and Philae. Associated with the gods of water Osiris and Nun, Hapi represented the annual flooding of the Nile, sometimes referred to as the “arrival of Hapi.” The Egyptians believed that the gods Khnemu, Anqet, and Satet guarded the Nile’s source and measured the amount of silt released annually by the river’s flooding. But it was Hapi who controlled the flooding so the ancient Egyptians threw offerings into the Nile in hopes of appeasing him so that he would provide the right amount of water to nourish there crops Khepri (Khepra, Khepri, Khopri)

He who comes into existence

Symbols: scarab beetle

Depiction: Khepri’s association with the dung beetle and his role as a sun god resulted in his depiction as a man with a beetle on his head or with a beetle head rolling the sun and moon across the sky.

Mythology: The god of the rising sun, Khepri was on manifestation of Re. He would roll the sun across the sky like a dung beetle roles its ball of dung in which it lays its eggs. The Egyptians believed that Khepri created himself just as it appeared dung beetles (scarabaeus sacer) did when their larvae emerged from the dung ball. Khepri was associated with self-renewal and self-generation. Geb (Seb, Gebb, Keb, Kebb)

Great Cackler

Symbols: goose, earth

Depiction: Geb is depicted as a man wearing the crown of the North or the South. His skin is either dark representing the rich soil of the Nile or green representing the color of Nile vegetation. Images of Geb portray him in a reclined position leaning on one elbow with one knee lifted. He lies beneath the air (Shu, his father) and the sky (Nut, his wife and sister).

Mythology: The god of the earth, Geb’s laugh was said to be the cause of earthquakes. His sister and wife was Nut, the goddess of the sky. He was the son of Shu and Tefnut. With Nut he produced four children, Osiris, Isis, Seth, and Nephthys. Geb’s duties as the god of the earth included guiding the dead to the underworld. 2nd god 3rd god 4th god 1st goddesses 2nd goddesses 3rd godesses 4th goddessses Isis is the feminine archetype for creation; she is the goddess of fertility and motherhood. She has gone by many names and played many roles in history and mythology - as goddess and female creator.

Her name literally means Queen of the Throne. Her original headdress was an empty throne chair belonging to her murdered husband, Osiris. As the personification of the throne, she was an important source of the Pharaoh's power. The pharaoh was depicted as her child, who sat on the throne she provided. Her cult was popular throughout Egypt, but the most important sanctuaries were at Behbeit El-Hagar in the Nile delta, and, beginning in the reign with Nectanebo I (380-362 BCE), on the island of Philae in Upper Egypt. Portrayed as a woman with a white ostrich feather on her head carrying a scepter in one hand and an ankh in the other.

Ma'at was also sometimes shown as a winged Goddess.

The symbol of the primevil mound was also used to represent this Goddess. This is the mound upon which the creator Gods stood at the beginning of time.

Sacred Bird: Ostriches. Bastet (Bast)

The Tearer

Symbols: cat, lioness, sistrum, Udjat (Eye of Horus)

Depiction: Until ca. 1,000 BCE, the goddess Bastet was depicted as a lioness. Later she was depicted as a woman with the head of a house cat. When portrayed as a lioness, Bastet was associated with sunlight. When portrayed as a cat she was associated with the moon.

Mythology: The daughter of Re and mother of Khonsu (the moon), Bastet was the goddess of cats, fire, the home, and pregnant women. Appearing in myth as both submissive and belligerent, Bastet protected expecting mothers and slaughtered enemies. Bastet was personification of the soul of Isis. The ancient Egyptians celebrated festivals in her honor in April and May at her cult center, Bubastis. According to the ancient Greek historian Herodotus, when the Egyptians traveled to Bubastis, they traveled in boats, men and women together. During the journey, some women shook rattles and some men played pipes while the remainder clapped their hands. The women on the boat taunted women on the banks of the river while the other revelers danced and made lots of noise. Upon arrival at Bubastis, a sacrifice was made and the revelers made merry by drinking lots of wine.
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