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Transcript of Perkins_TfU
Some well known works
The Mind's Best Work (Harvard University Press, 1981)
The Teaching of Thinking (Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., 1985)
Smart Schools: From Training Memories to Educating Minds (The Free Press, 1992)
The Intelligent Eye: Learning to Think by Looking at Art (The Getty Center for Education in the Arts, 1994)
Outsmarting IQ: The Emerging Science of Learnable Intelligence (The Free Press, 1995)
Archimedes' bathtub : the art and logic of breakthrough thinking 1st ed., New York : W.W. Norton, c2000.
King Arthur’s Round Table: How Collaborative Conversations Create Smart Organizations (Wiley, 2003)
The Eureka Effect: the Art and Logic of Breakthrough Thinking (Norton, 2001)
Making Learning Whole (Jossey-Bass, 2009)
Definitions and Misconceptions of Understanding?
Understanding of knowledge
---“understanding of knowledge is an important value of education”
---“learning with understanding can be expected to yield higher engagement”
---“knowledge cannot come into its own until learners can deploy it with understanding”
6 Priorities for Teachers who
Teach for Understanding
Make learning a long-term, thinking-centered process.
Provide for rich ongoing assessment.
Support learning with powerful representations.
Pay heed to developmental factors.
Induct students into the discipline.
Teach for transfer.
Began in 1967 and continues today. Perkins was in charge between 1972-2000. He is still listed as a principle investigator.
Understanding is generally identified with Knowledge (but k does not guarantee understanding)
Understanding comes all at once, the “I get it” (but understanding is an incremental effort)
Knowing is not necessarily Understanding (we can recite Hamlet’s to be or not to be but do we understand it)
Teaching for Understanding
Central to TfU framework are the ability to:
Explain in own words
Offer and defend personal interpretation
Solve problems not encountered before
Adapt old ideas to new situation
Relate it to other things
Explore its relationship to a larger body of the discipline
Use it to explain a phenomena not studied yet
Four Central Questions About Teaching
What shall we teach?
What is worth understanding?
How shall we teach for understanding?
How can students and teacher know what students understand and how students can develop deeper understanding?
TfU Element Addressing each Question
Math and AI background from MIT
Harvard senior professor
Project Zero Harvard Graduate School of Education
Research areas: Understanding, thinking, creativity, problem-solving and reasoning in the arts and sciences
How Do We Get to Understanding?
Recite facts, rote
Traditional tools of pedagogy, books have a place
More active use and transfer of knowledge
Extensive knowledge-critical and creative
Look for patterns
Find personal examples
Relate to prior knowledge
Active use of knowledge
“we can be sure we know something ONLY when we think and act flexibly with what we know”