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Unit 3 "Latin America"

Chp. 8, 9, 10

Robert Burney

on 10 October 2016

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Transcript of Unit 3 "Latin America"

Unit 3 "Latin America" Vocab. and Notes
Chapter 8 "Physical Geography of Latin America"
Chp. 9 "Latin America"
Chp. 10 "Latin America Today"
Chp. 8 Vocabulary
Slash-and-burn farming is one of the major causes of deforestation in Latin America. Please watch the following video, and answer the questions for your notes.
What is slash-and-burn farming?
Why do the Honduran farmers practice this method if they know it often isn't long term?
What is the possible solution offered in the video?
Chp. 8 Physical Geography: LA
"The Land"
Latin America can be divided into three different sub-regions
1. Middle America (Mexico-Panama)
2. The Caribbean
3. South America
The Andes are a chain of parallel mountain ranges.
How would living in between two mountain ranges benefit and harm a society?
The Pacific Ring of Fire has caused the chain of mountains that make up the Sierra Madre, Central Highlands, and Andes.
Water Systems
The Amazon stretches from the Andes to the coast of Brazil
The Parana, Paraguay, and Uruguay rivers form the second longest river system in Latin America.
The Rio Grande/Bravo River in Mexico makes up the U.S.-Mexican border.
The Panama Canal located in Panama allows ships to travel between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans.
Natural Resources
Latin America contains large supplies of oil, natural gas, gold, silver, emeralds, copper, and bauxite (aluminum).
Geographic inaccessibility, lack of capital for development, and deep social and political divisions keep many of the region’s natural resources from being fully utilized.
"Climate and Vegetation"
Opening Activity: Take a look at the various climate zones of Latin America. Which one would you like to live in? Why did you choose this zone? Based on the info on the smartboard, which one do you think the most people live in?
Elevation and Climate
Even though much of Middle America and South America is located in the Tropics its climate varies.
These areas are affected greatly by elevation rather than distance from the Equator.
There are five climate zones that these regions have been divided into:
a. tierra helada-frozen land
b. puna-cold zone, but still suitable for grazing sheep, llamas, and alpacas
c. tierra fria-cold land is Middle America’s highest land. Good for growing potatoes and barley
d. tierra templada –temparate land most populated zone.
e. tierra caliente-hot land contains rain forests.
Climate and Vegetation Regions
Tropical wet climates dominate much of Latin America. Ex. Amazon Basin
Tropical dry climates are located on most of the Caribbean islands, coastal southwestern Mexico, and north-central South America.
Humid subtropical and steppe makes up most of southeastern South America. Ex. Plains of Argentina
Dry Climates. Ex. Atacama Desert.
Section 9-1 (pgs. 216-220) Vocab.
primate city
extended family
Section 9-1 Notes "Mexico"
The Aztecs
Mexican Independence
The Mayans
Population Patterns
Ethnic groups, migration, and urban growth have shaped the population of Mexico.
The blending of European settlers with indigenous people has created a group called
Nearly 75 % of the Mexican population live in cities.
Mexico City is country’s largest city. Its population density is 30,150 per square mile!
1. What are Mayan hieroglyphics or glyphs?

Glyphs are picture writings carved in stone to honor the gods and record history.

2. Why are they so difficult to understand?

The Mayans mysteriously vanished without providing a way to translate most of their glyphs.

3. What do these glyphs tell us about the Mayans?

Glyphs tell us that they were a large empire skilled in agriculture, trade, mathematics, and astronomy.

4. Briefly explain the Mayan calendar. When do they begin their calendar?

The Mayan calendar is a circular stone that rotated around a larger circular stone. Each symbol represents specific year and time of that year. It begins with the creation of the universe.
Please answer the following questions using complete sentences for your notes from pg. 218:
Where was Tenochtitlan built?
How did the Aztecs plant crops in the middle of a lake?
Who conquered the Aztecs?
Where can the modern ruins of Tenochtitlan be found?
Mexico was a viceroyalty of New Spain for many years.
In 1810, Miguel Hidalgo helped Mexico win its independence from Spain.
Mexico currently uses a federal system. (Exec., Leg., Jud. branches)
Please answer the following questions using complete sentences for your notes:
What is the primary language of Mexico?
What is the primary religion practiced in Mexico?
What are some of the major influences on Mexican art?
Describe what a typical Mexican household may look like?
Possible Answers:
Spanish is the primary language of Mexico.
Mexico is a primarily Catholic country.
Mexican art is largely influenced by their indigenous and Spanish colonial roots.
Mexicans highly value their extended family. A typical household would include grandparents, cousins, aunts, uncles, parents, and siblings.
Define jai alai in your notes.
Section 9-2 Vocabulary (pg. 221)
The Columbian Exchange
Francois Toussaint-Louverture
Section 9-2 Notes "Central America and the Caribbean"
Density and Distribution
History and Government
• Like Mexico, Central America has a large population of ______________, or people of native american and Spanish ancestry.
• Over the years, millions of ___________________ immigrants have made the Caribbean their home.
• Large populations of ___________ were brought to the Caribbean with the practice of slavery. Their descendents still remain in Cuba, the Dominican Republic, and the Bahamas.
Bellringer: Please watch the following footage of the Caribbean islands. Write a paragraph (4-5 sentences) describing why or why you wouldn't want to visit this region.
Read on pg. 222 to complete the following notes.
Continue on pg. 222
Most people in Central America live in the_________________ on the western _____________ coast.
Caribbean countries combine ________________ areas with large ___________________ to create a large population density.
Please read pg. 223, and answer the following fill in the blank notes to 9-2.
____________________ was the first to explore the Caribbean from 1492-1504.
His explorations led to Spanish ______________in the region.
After the Native American populations on the islands were wiped out by ____________________, _______________________, and European diseases.
With the arrival of Europeans came the ______________ ________________. This was the movement of various ___________, ____________, and _____________ in between Europe and the Americas.
What unintended transfer from Europeans had a detrimental effect on the indigenous population of Latin America?

Which of your favorite foods would not be common in the U.S. if the Columbian Exchange had not occurred?
European Conquest
Gaining Independence
In 1804, Haiti was the first colony to win its independence in the region. (from France)
Cuba won its independence in 1898. Today it is a communist state under Fidel Castro.
Following independence, many Central American countries are struggling to end corrupt politics.
Language and Religion

English, Spanish, French, and Dutch are spoken throughout the Caribbean.
Catholicism is the primary religion of Central America and the Caribbean.
Santeria (Cuba) and voodoo (Haiti and DR) are among the few mixed religions in the region.

Due to poor standards of living, many children do not complete their high school education.
Family Life
Extended family is equally as important. But often a woman is in charge of the family structure in the Caribbean.
Sports and Leisure
Baseball was brought to Cuba by American soldiers. Many people from this region play in the MLB.
Section 9-3 Vocabulary (pg. 227-232):
brain drain
Francisco Pizarro
Section 9-3 "South America" Notes
The Incans
Movements for Change
People and Distribution
The rain forests, deserts, and mountains of South America’s interior have forced settlement to the coastal regions.
A search for better living conditions and a desire to escape violence have motivated people to leave various South American countries.
Please answer the following questions in complete sentences as you watch the video:
Where was the Incan Empire located?
What accomplishments are the ancient Incans known for?
Who conquered the Incans? Why did he do it?
Who were chasquis?
How did they defeat the mighty Incans?
What are the modern effects of this conquest?
What do you think causes brain drain?
•Independence didn't occur in South America until the mid-1800s. Ex. Simon Bolivar (Venezuela) Jose de San Martin (Argentina)
•Postcolonial South America brought corruption and turmoil for most countries. Caudillos (dictators) often seized power.
Please answer the following questions using complete sentences for your notes
Where do most of the indigenous groups live in South America?
What are the main European languages that are probably spoken in South America?
How does the population of Argentina contrast with that of the population of Venezuela?
What is a nuclear household?
How can South American indigenous roots be observed in their modern culture?
South American History:
At its height, the Inca Empire stretched, through the Andes, from present-day Ecuador to central Chile.
They were skilled engineers.
They were known for building temples and fortresses on hillsides.
They also laid out a network of roads that crossed mountain passes and penetrated forests.
In 1535, Spaniard Francisco Pizarro took over the Incan empire which had been weakened by civil war.
The Spanish and Portuguese became the largest colonizers of South America.
The effects of epidemics caused by diseases introduced by the Europeans and the hardships of intensive labor on colonial plantations drastically reduced indigenous populations. To meet the resulting labor shortage, European colonists imported enslaved Africans.
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