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Transcript of Text Structures
Cause is why something happens,
what caused it to happen.
Effect is what happens as a result.
It is the outcome of the cause.
To determine the effect(s) of a story or piece of writing, ask the question , "what happened?"
To determine the cause of a story or piece of writing, ask the question,"Why did it happen?"
When a piece of writing is organized by cause and effect, it will focus on a cause(maybe more than one) and one or several effects that result of that cause.
Cause and effect is usually used in expository and persuasive writings.
Some indicating words for cause in effect
include because, as a result, resulted,caused,
affected, since, therefore, and due to.
Here is an example of cause and effect
being used in a paragraph.
The lack of rain and snow has awful effects on farmers. This is because with no rain their land dries up, and it is very difficult to grow anything. When the crops fail, the farmers have no choice but to get a second job in order to make the money they are lacking. Farming is a full time job and if they have to get a second job, farmers might become overworked, stressed and even depressed. Many farmers end up selling their land, and some farmers even have to accept government programs.
This represents cause and effect because when you push one, that would be the cause and the effect would be that all of the other dominoes behind it would fall too.
This is an diagram used to organize information
by cause and effect.
When a piece of writing is organized
by compare and contrast, it tells the
difference and similarities between
Comparing is telling how things are similar.
Contrasting is telling how thing are different.
Indication words that help
determine if a writing is organized
by compare and contrast
include: alike, like, different, same, similar,
unlike, likewise, on the other hand, conversely,
Also, look for words ending in -er or -est.
It is a new school year, and i have noticed some similarities and differences between this year,8th grade, and last year 7th grade. First, one way that both of these grades are similar is that the expectations haven't changed. We are still expected to study, to pay attention in class, and to do our homework. I have also noticed that we are learning some thins in 8th grade that we have already learned in 7th grade, such as independent and dependent clauses, the scientific method, and map skills. However, I did notice some differences between the grades also. One major thing was the amount of homework. I have realized that we are assigned a lot more homework than we were in 7th grade. Also the teachers are a lot more hard about homeworking due right when you walk into class. I felt that in 7th grade, you were allowed to work on it in class more the day it was due, but in 8th grade, on the day it was due, it was due right when you walked into that class. You would not be able to work on it if you did not finish.
This is a Venn diagram. It is a graphic organizer.
It is used to compare and contrast different things.
The differences go on the sides and the similarities go in
In the Venn diagram above, whales and fish are being
compared and contrasted.
When a piece of writing is organized by
problem and solution, the text will revolve around
a problem/dilemma and possible solutions for the problem.
Sometimes, the problem has already been solved.If that is the case, the writer will most likely invite the reader to contribute to the solution, or acting accordingly to the solution if they are ever with the situation.
Words and phrases that would help
you determine if the writing is organized
by problem and solution include proposes,
suggests, solution, answer, remedy,
prevention, fix, etc.
EXAMPLE OF PROBLEM
In this paragraph, the problem is that people are not able to wake up on time and the solutions are putting the alarm clock across the room and smelling something when you wake up.
The first picture with the '?' represents a problem.
The second picture with the light bulb represents a solution.
This text structure is when a piece of writing is structured by
a certain or fixed order.
It tells what happens first,
People often confuse chronological order and sequential order. The difference between these two different text structures is that chronological is by time and when each event happens exactly. Sequential is when it is ordered in a specific order like a cookbook. The cookbook does not tell you when each event will happen or happened. It just tells you how to cook it in a specific order.
Indicating words of sequential order include
first, next, right after, finally,etc.
It takes a few simple turns to arrive at the pool.First keep walking forward on Little Bee road,until you arrive at the post office.Then turn on the road that is left of the post office. When you see woodland
road, turn into that road and keep walking straight until you come upon a bike store. Now, you will also see a road right of you. Take that road and keep walking straight. If you continue to walk straight you will eventually see a sign that says Evergreen Aquatics center. That means
you have arrived at the pool. Have fun!
Cookbooks are ordered by sequential order.
Argument and support is when there is a specific opinion concerning a topic and the writer then explains reasons to support his or her opinion.
This text structure is often used in persuasion.
This is because the writer is trying
to get you to feel the same way he or she feels
about the certain topic.
To help identify is a writing is organized by argument
and support, look for opinions about a specific topic. Also look for words like "I think..." or "I feel...."
Other things that a argument and support writing may contain
include facts, reasons, and expert opinions.
You should also look for over generalizations
or errors in reasoning.
These day, our planet has become a waste land. Over 70% of
the ocean is polluted and over 80% of the land is polluted.
If this continues, mankind will be extinct in 10 years.
I think that if we do no want to die, we will all need to start living more environmentally health lives. Unless we all want to die, but hopefully that will not be the case.
This not true. I came up with this paragraph in my head.
The opinion here is that we need to start living more environmental healthy lived. It also provides support such as if we don't, mankind will go extinct.
In this picture is a graphic organizer that can
be used to organize information
from an argument and support text.
The main idea is the statement
the topic which is supported
The main idea is what the passage is about .
The supporting details explains and gives more information
about the main idea.
When I grow up, I want to become a biologist. Why, you might ask? Well that is because I aspire to contribute to make our planet a better place. I want to lend a hand to saving endangered animals and to improve the environment we are living in. Nature has always fascinated me what else can better cultivate that curiosity than to be a biologist. It excites me to think about going to a top college and graduating with a degree in biology. But, it excites me even more when I think out going out into a real world after I have received my degree and making a difference out there.
In the paragraph above, the main idea is that, I want to become a biologist.
It then supports and explains the main idea by telling why I want to become I hope to become a biologist and what I will do after I receive my degree in biology.
A few indicating words for main idea
and supports include mostly about,
best tells, most likely, main lessen, sums up,
best way, best describes, and etc.
The title may also tell you what the main idea is about.
Theae are various graphic organizers that could be used to
organize mian idea and support.
Many people fail to wake up on time in the morning. this is because when their alarm clock rings. They will often press snooze or even the off button thinking they will only sleep another 10 minutes, but when they wake up, 30 minutes or more of precious time has passed. There are ways however that you can wake up and stay awake. One these ways is to place your alarm clock far away from your bed so that you will have to get out of bed and walk over to your alarm clock to turn it off. You can also put something that smells strong besides you bed to smell when you wake up such as salt or even grapefruit. People have been using smells to keep them awake for thousands of years. With these strategies and more, you can avoid multitasking in the morning to get ready because you are running out of time.
This paragraph is giving directions in a specific order.