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Gradual Release of Responsibility
Transcript of Gradual Release of Responsibility
1. Name the strategy, skill, or task
2. State the purpose of the strategy, skill or task
3. Explain when the strategy or skill is used
4. Use analogies to link prior knowledge to new learning
5. Demonstrate how the skill, strategy, or task is completed
6. Alert learners about errors to avoid Step 4: Independent Tasks -This is the independence stage.
- The students complete the task
alone and the teacher monitors. Karen Pattman & Erika Nelson Gradual Release of Responsibility Step 2: Guided Lesson This is the "apprentice" stage where the teacher and students complete a collaborative productive activity.
Teacher does the same task and the students take over some of the parts that they can do. Step 3: Collaborative Learning - This is the gradual
- Students work in small groups to complete the task together.
- The teacher assists students as needed What is the GRR Model? The Gradual Release of Responsibility Model or GRR Model is a particular style of teaching which is a structured method of pedagogy framed around a process devolving responsibility within the learning process from the teacher to the eventual independence of the learner. This instructional model requires that the teacher, by design, transitions from assuming "all the responsibility for performing a task...to a situation in which the students assume all of the responsibility." Phrase “Gradual Release of Responsibility” was coined by Pearson and Gallagher The gradual release of response of responsibility model is the intersection of several theories , including the following:
Piaget’s (1952) work on cognitive structures and schema
Vygotsky’s (1962, 1978) work on zones of proximal development
Bandura’s (1965) work on attention, retention, reproduction or motivation
Wood, Bruner, and Ross’s (1976) work on scaoffolded instruction THE STAGES Evidence:
This gradual release of responsibility model of instruction has been documented as an effective approach for improving writing achievement (Fisher & Frey, 2003), reading comprehension (Lloyd, 2004), and literacy outcomes for all learners (Kong & Pearson, 2003) What does it look like? Helps teacher truly differentiate instruction based on needs
Keeps groupings flexible Students become increasingly more self-directed and engaged Gradual Release of Responsibility in the classroom Provide students the opportunity to work together
Positive interdependence Interpersonal skills
Group processing Face-to-face interaction
Individual and group accountability (All that really means the Gradual Release of Responsibility Model or GRR Model is a style of teaching that shifts responsibility from the teacher to the learner.) A crucial part of GRR is the 'instructional scaffolding', which is grounded in Vygotsky’s concept of the Zone of Proximal Development, (ZPD). Students are given support in the form of scaffolding and differentiate instruction throughout all four phases of the process. Teachers may offer more challenging material to high-achieving students, and assist lower-achieving students in needs-based groups. Common complaint with this stage is the teacher assigns a difficult task and does not help.
Assistance is a must at every stage of GRR. How is a GRR lesson structured? ACTIVITY! Is GRR used in real life? References References 1)http://reading.ecb.org/downloads/itb_GradualRelease.pdf
7)Better Learning Through Structured Teaching: A Framework for the Gradual Release of Responsibility. Douglas Fisher, Nancy Frey.
8)(Duke & Pearson, 2002, p. 211). Duke, N. K., & Pearson, P. D. (2002). Effective practices.
9)http://www.glencoe.com/glencoe_research/Jamestown/gradual_release_of_responsibility.pdf THANK YOU!