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Amanda Lin

on 12 October 2012

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Transcript of Ghana

General Information 1. Country name: Ghana
2. Capital city: Accra
3. Currency: Ghana Cedi 1.8800 to $1.00 as of June 30, 2012 floating
4. Official languages: Asante 14.8%, Ewe 12.7%, Fante 9.9%, Boron (Brong) 4.6%, Dagomba 4.3%, Dangme 4.3%, Dagarte (Dagaba) 3.7%, Akyem 3.4%, Ga 3.4%, Akuapem 2.9%, other (includes English (official)) 36.1% (2000 census)
5. Racial composition: Akan 45.3%, Mole-Dagbon 15.2%, Ewe 11.7%, Ga-Dangme 7.3%, Guan 4%, Gurma 3.6%, Grusi 2.6%, Mande-Busanga 1%, other tribes 1.4%, other 7.8% 6.Size of population: 24,652,402 (July 2012 est.), Comparison to the world: 48
7.Annual rate of population growth: 2.4
8.Main natural resources: gold, timber, industrial diamonds, bauxite, manganese, fish, rubber, hydropower, petroleum, silver, salt, limestone
9.Date of independence: March 1957 10.Brief colonial history:
1482-1642 Portuguese Colony: Portuguese Gold Coast. Portuguese seceded the colony to the Dutch.
1642-1872 Dutch Colony (Portion of Modern day Ghana): Dutch Gold Coast. The dutch seceded to the British.
1872-1957 British Colony (Now Modern Day Ghana): Gold Coast. Was the first sub-Saharan nation to gain independence. Independence movement was led by Kwame Nhrumah, who was the first President.
11.Political system: Unitary presidential constitutional republic. Power is divided between a president, parliament, cabinet, council of state, and an independent judiciary. Officials are elected through universal suffrage.
12.Recent civil conflict and impact on economy and society: Ghana has a high-profile peacekeeping role; troops have been deployed in Ivory Coast, Liberia, Sierra Leone and DR Congo. Although Ghana has largely escaped the civil strife that has plagued other West African countries, in 1994-95 land disputes in the north erupted into ethnic violence, resulting in the deaths of 1,000 people and the displacement of a further 150,000.
13.Recent natural disasters and impact on economy and society: Accra is in a low-lying area and frequently experiences floods during the rainy season which runs from July through November. Climate experts believe the entire region could be permanently underwater within the next 80 years. Economic Profile 14. Most recent GDP/GNP figure in market currency rates: GDP (current US$) $39.20 billion in 2011
15.Per capita GDP: $3,100 (2011 est.)
16.Average rate of economic growth: GDP real growth rate was 13.6% (2011 est.)
17.Recent rate of inflation: 8.7% (2011 est.) 18.Income distribution per quintile:
Second 20%: 9.84%
Third 20%: 14.73%
Fourth 20%: 21.64%
Highest 20%: 48.55%
Lowest 20%: 5.24%
19.Share of economic sectors in GDP (primary, secondary, tertiary: agriculture/fisheries/mining, etc., manufacturing, & services):
Agriculture: 28.3%, industry: 21%, services: 50.7% (2011 est.)
20.How developed is the financial system and institutions: Rapid growth and major structural transformation over the last decade.The authorities have been implementing reforms to strengthen the regulatory and supervisory framework and financial infrastructures. Stability risks had heightened considerably, with high nonperforming loans (NPLs) and undercapitalized banks.Lack of long-term finance, limited access to financial services, and high intermediation costs 21.Environmental conditions and policies: Land Degradation, Coastal erosion, water and air pollution, poor waste management
22.Deforestation (legal or illegal logging) & reforestation program, if any: Timber exploitation, Shifting cultivation, Bushfires. Annual allowable cut quantity.
23.Physical infrastructure (conditions of roads, railroads, waterways, etc.): Ghana has an advanced infrastructure platform when compared with other low-income countries in Africa. Ghana’s most pressing challenges lie in the power sector, where outmoded transmission and distribution assets, rapid demand growth, and periodic hydrological shocks leave the country reliant on high-cost oil-based generation. Addressing Ghana's infrastructure challenges will require raising annual expenditures to $2.3 billion. 24.Private property rights & enforcement: Global Property Guide Index for Property rights in which higher scores are more desirable, i.e. property rights are better protected. Scores are from 0 to 100. In comparison to the rest of Africa, Ghana placed 4th highest with an index of 50.
25.Extent of corruption (index if available): According to Transparency International's 2011 Corruption Index: From a scale of 1-10 (10 being the cleanest 1 being the most corrupt) Ghana scored 3.9. It is ranked #69 among countries (with 1 being the cleanest, reference: the United States is #24, China is #75, and New Zealand is #1) 26.Most recently reported unemployment rate, by age and gender: As of 2006=15-24 Male-4.1% 15-24 Female-4.1% 25-44 Male-4% 25-44 Female-4% 45-64 Male-1.8% 45-64 Female-2% Overall Male-3.5% Overall Female-3.6%
27.Ease of doing business index, if available: 63. scale of 1-183 with 1 being very easy.
28.ICT coverage (information and communication technology - internet, cell phones): At the end of 2009, had 261,000 DSL internet subscriptions, 267,400 fixed telephone lines, and 15,109,000 mobile phone subscriptions 29.Safety net policies & programs (unemployment insurance, social security, various aid programs to the poor, etc.): Ghana has many programs that combat poverty and unemployment. In 2006 they introduced the National Youth Unemployment Program (NYUP). They also have a program to spur employment and consumption among the poor, known as Livelihood Empowerment Against Poverty Programme (LEAP). In addition the Social Opportunities Project helps the rural poor find jobs during the agricultural off-season.
30.Food & other subsidies to poor: Ghana subsidizes fertilizer and seeds costing 124.1 million in the Ghanian cedi. On avereage fertilizers are being subsidized at 43.3 % and seeds are being subsidized at 36.6 percent.
31.Condition of health and medical system: Health expenditures: 10.6% of GDP
country comparison to the world: 24. Expenditures: public (as a % of total): 59.5%. (2010). Health expenditure per capita (2010) in current U.S. dollars: $67 Social Profile 32.Human rights laws & extent of protection (freedom of speech & assembly, degree of media independence): state-owned TV station, 2 state-owned radio networks; several privately-owned TV stations and a large number of privately-owned radio stations; transmissions of multiple international broadcasters are accessible; several cable and satellite TV subscription services are obtainable (2007). Threats to freedom of expression grew. At least six people were arrested, detained or prosecuted for "causing fear and panic."
33.Racial discrimination: The Commission for Human Rights and Administrative Justice of Ghana has done particularly well with protection against racial discrimination and intolerance. However, 25% of ethnic Ghanaians felt discriminated against due to their tribal origins. 34.State of civil society (name active organizations and NGOs): NGOs in Ghana have an annual development expenditure of between $150-$200 million. NGOs provide between 45-50 per cent of all health-care services and over 50 per cent of all family planning service.The Ghana Association of Private Voluntary Organizations in Development is the Umbrella NGO for most groups in Ghana including environmental, political, health, agriculture, ect. groups.
35.Extent of child labor: The Ghana Child Labour Survey (2003) informs that of about 6.36 million Ghanaian children between 5-17 years, representing 2.47 per cent (half being rural children and one-fifth, urban ones), over 88 per cent of them work as unpaid labourers in the fishing, agriculture, mining, quarrying, truck-push, domestic work, commercial sex and hawking enterprises.
36.Presence & extend of drug trade: Ghana has for quite some time been part of the drug trade. The UN says that Ghana along with Guinea-Bissau are the major hubs of cocaine smuggling within the region. In March of 2012 Ghana and United States of America (USA) have renewed their resolve to jointly fight drug trafficking, money laundering, piracy, terrorism and other forms of cross-border crimes. 37.Literacy rates by gender: 82.7%(Male); 67.1% (Female)
38.Child mortality: 74.4 deaths per 1,000 children under age five - 2010
39.Poverty rate (% of population): 28.5% as of 2007 40.Per cent of relevant age group who attend: primary, secondary, & college: Primary-101% gross enrollment Secondary-40% net enrollment. Tertiary-7% gross enrollment
41.Prevalence of major diseases (AIDS, HIV, malaria, etc.): AIDS, HIV, Malaria, Typhoid fever, Hepatitis A, Bacterial or Protozoal diarrhea, rabies, meningococcal meningitis, schistosomiasis. Amanda Lin
Srinidhi Kundur
Jordan Lance
Harrison LeJeune
Dorianne Ma
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