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Transcript of HUKBALAHAP MOVEMENT
The friar estate, legally and illegally acquired, grew to such an extent as to swallow up the parcels of land belonging either to the public domain or to small planters who were too ignorant to secure legal rights over their property. The customary division of the crops was 50-50, with the peasants furnishing the tools and work animals. The peasants were compelled to borrow money from his landlord at an exorbitant interest. Losses in the cockfights meant more borrowing from the landlord. The net result was the increased dependence of the peasant on his landlord, continued loss of self respect and income, and an abject life. AGRARIAN UNREST UNDER THE AMERICANS the Filipino middle class rose to reminiscence and initiated the reform movement which resulted in a social tension
The tension snapped when, in 1896; the masses, led by Andres Bonifacio, took to the field against the Spanish oppressors
the Filipino upper class rushed into the vacuum created by the disappearance of the Spanish rulers.
-The peasants continued to play their role of the exploited after the Revolution and through the American period.
-Usury continued to exist under the American rule.
TAKIPAN - paying 100% interest,
TALINDUWA -peasant paying what he borrowed in kind, say, palay.
Pasunod - peasant was forced to borrow from his landlord whether he liked it or not.
Baligtaran -the palay was converted into money at, say, one pesos per cavan at the time the loan was made.
THE RISE OF SOCIALISM AND COMMUNISM *political consciousness due to freedom
*Role of tagalong novels
“Banaag at Sikat” by Lope K. Santos (1906)
“Busabos ng Palad” by Faustino Aguilar (1907)
“Nangalunod sa Katihan” (1911)
“Ang Huling Timawa” by Servando de los Angeles (1936)
Confederacion de Aparceros y Obreros Agricolas de Filipinas, later renamed Katipunang Pambansa ng mga Magbubukid sa Pilipinas (Phil. Confederation of tenants and Agricultural Workers) under leadership of Jacinto Manahan In 1928, representatives of the Phil. Labor Congress (PLC) attended a trade conference in Canton, China which was sponsored by the communists
*PLC affiliated itself with the Red International Organization of Labor Unions, thereby making the PLC a communist union
*1929 - the conservative end of the communist leaders of the PLC disagreed on matters of policy. So Crisanto Evangelista a former PLC leader and a communist, founded his Katipunan ng mga Anak Pawis ng Pilipinas, while other leaders; Ruperto Cristobal and Antonio Paguia remained in the PLC. purpose of communist party was:
•To work for the improvement of living and working conditions of workers and peasants;
•To overthrow the American colonial government and the establishment of an independent Philippines patterned after Soviet Russia; and
•To unite all workers. Socialist Party - Founded by Pedro Abad Santos in 1929
- not outlawed
Communist leaders were pardoned, the two parties- the Communist and Socialist- merged. This affiliation of peasants and workers of Central Luzon with a communist organization made them the most politically sophisticated working class in the Philippines.
THE FOUNDING OF HUKBALAHAP three point platform: economic, political and military:
*The Economic phase- development of all means of providing the people with sustenance and at the same time to sabotage Japanese efforts.
*The Political phase - discrediting the “puppet regime” and in destroying its influence.
*The Military aim was to harass the Japanese and collect all sorts of arms in preparation for a vast resistance movement WHEN THE WAR BROKE OUT
peasants took over the land of the absentee landlords. LIBERATION AND IMPRISONMENT February 5, the Huks were focibly disarmed by American MP’s.
*Huk leaders were arrested
*Philippine Civil Affairs Unit (PCAU) of the American Army proceeded to remove all municipal leaders elected by the Huks and replaced them with USAFFE guerillas. THE ARREST OF TARUC Taruc accused the landlords of having instigated the move against the Huks in order to wreak vengeance on them, and primarily to disorganize the Huk movement for their (landlords’) benefit.
On September 23, 1945, some 50,000 peasants and workers marched to Malakanyang and demanded the release of Taruc and his companions. Taruc was then released on September 30. It got so bad that during the Masico Affair in Laguna, a group of old and young men and women suspected of being Huks were machine-gunned by the MPs without any warning or investigation.
Also, at Maliwalu, Bacolor, Pampanga, a group of men and women holding a party at night were fired upon and killed by the MP’s Roxas and the Huks THE AMNESTY PROCLAMATION On June 21 then, President Quirino issued a proclamation in the presence of Taruc at Malakanyang, granting amnesty to all leader and members of the Hukbalahap and the PKM.
Amnesty was absolute and covered crimes of rebellion, sedition, illegal association, assault, resistance and disobedience to persons in authority.
THE BREAKDOWN OF AMNESTY On August 14, Taruc left Manila on a “mission of peace and to confer with his leaders over the eleventh hour registration”.
*clash between the 507th MP company and 50 Huks at Kabanatuan resulted in the resumption of the hostilities between the MP’s and the Huks.
THE MURDER OF MRS. QUEZON On APRIL 28, 1949, Mrs. Aurora Quezon(Chairman of the Philippine National Red Cross), her daughter Baby, and ten others were waylaid past Bongabon, Nueva Ecija and shot dead mercilessly to their deaths
APRIL 29,1949, Taruc made a letter to the Manila Chronicle, denying that the Huks were responsible for the crime. He accused the government of “creating national hysteria that would call for further repressive measures” against the Huks. He also admitted for the first time that the Huks objective was to “overthrow the government”.
HUKBALAHAP “PEOPLE’S LIBERATION ARMY” in 1950.
FALL OF HUK POLITBURO Rumors were spread, such as the Huks could take Manila any time they wanted, and it wouldn’t be long before the Malakanyang would be in the hands of the Huks. PRESIDENT ELPIDIO QUIRINO gave Magsaysay the necessary funds to carry out the administration’s program of rehabilitating the surrendered Huks. MILITARY INTELLIGENCE SERVICE OF THE AFP worked day and night to track down the nerve center of the Huk Politburo, the body that executed the decisions of the Huk Central Committee. The arrest and incarceration of the member of Politburo led to the demoralization of the Huk rank and file. Many surrendered and sent to Mindanao for rehabilitation. Others were imprisoned for sedition and rebellion and serving sentence in National Penitentiary. THE SURRENDER OF TARUC BENIGNO AQUINO, JR was secretly appointed by Pres. Magsaysay in early 1954 as his personal emissary to Taruc.
Finally, on MAY 17, 1954, after months of negotiation, Taruc surrendered to the governments. He unreservedly recognized the authority of Pres. Magsaysay and the sovereignty of the Republic of the Philippines. He was brought to court and sentenced to serve years in prison. In MAY 1964, The Huk movement lost its “BRAINS” and what remained were strugglers.