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Transcript of Youth culture
New political cultures
The youth bulge and unemployment
Urbanism and cosmopolitanism
The Secular religious divide
The new Arabs are more literate
The new Arabs are wired
Networks and political culture
Youth born between 1977- 2000
"New Arabs" or "Millennials"
Accounts for over a third of the 400 million Arabs
Capable of large social and political changes and create cultural and political frameworks
Youths face problems of unemployment
More urban, literate, wired and secular than the generation before
Voice of youth movements and political organizations
"If you're young and talented, it's like you have wings".
Youth Bulge & Unemployment
Arab world began its population boom around 1850
1850- 5 million people, 2011- 83 million people
20th century medicine aided the boom
The average unemployment rate for youth in the region was 23% for men and 31% for women
High populated areas suffer less from unemployment
Youth bulge will hang everything from revolutions to a rise of terrorism
Urbanism & Cosmopolitanism
Shaped rapid social, economic, and technological change
New millennials live in cities, working service or industry jobs
Libyan urbanization increase; 50% in 1970, 75% in 1985, by 2011 with 80% urban
Tunisians urbanization increase; 50% in 1970's, 2009 two thirds were urban
Egypt urbanization increase; 20 million - 36 million from 1980-2009
Creation of a Cosmopolitan culture; MTV videos, SMS, social media, and satellite TV
Arab millennials are most cosmopolitan yet
The New Millennial
"The New Arab Millennials" By Juan Cole
Do you consider Gen y a lazy or unproductive generation? And how does it differ between Western culture to Middle Eastern culture?
The Secular Religious Divide
The New Arabs are Literate
The New Arabs are Wired
Social Media Revolutions
Movements characterized by special forms of political breadth and flexibility
Use internet to break down political barriers
Refused to let themselves be divided and ruled
Social movements are networked, and horizontal not hierarchal
Informal ways of addressing one another
New forms of horizontal connectedness and interactivity
New ability to form political coalitions across ideological lines
Challenge higher authority
Opportunities for self enrichment and further entrenchment of their power
"The terrorists thought they would change my aims and stop my ambitions, but nothing changed in my life except this: weakness, fear and hopelessness died. Strength, power and courage was born ... I am not against anyone, neither am I here to speak in terms of personal revenge against the Taliban or any other terrorist group. I'm here to speak up for the right of education for every child. I want education for the sons and daughters of the Taliban and all terrorists and extremists."
Do you believe the youth culture is passive or is considered lazy in political activism ? Consider slactivism and the effects of social media, can social media instigate a revolution ?
"Because of the internet the younger generation has more connectivity, and possesses a boarder, more cosmopolitan vision."
- Decline in religious observance
- Commitment to tolerance rather than militant secularism
- Secularism was becoming a distinctive youth movement
“Struggles between a secular and a religious vision of society had become central to the Middle Eastern experience in this generation, provoking contradictory responses. Some left-liberal youth were determined to create alliances across the secular-religious divide. Others were determined not to let what they saw as fundamentalist terrorism shape their lives.” (49)
- Torn between opposition to political Islam and a willingness to ally with it
- Leftist groups as well as Muslim activists have emerged
- Polarization of youth
- Gen Y members on average less observant
- Define themselves by nation-state or their political and cultural learnings
- Gen Y is the most literate group of Arabs ever to exist
- Generational divide - upsets social hierarchies
- Vast increase in literacy in Modern Standard Arabic in this generation has allowed for millennials to communicate beyond small groups
- Literacy gave confidence to challenge elders
- Increase in gaps of knowledge between older and younger generations
- The internet connected like-minded youth around the world
- Use of the internet was formational, but not as central to these social movements as assumed - not all had access to the internet
- Difference in internet usage by Gen Y
- creating content
- group experience
- Allowed for active role in production, consumption, and dissemination
As noted, the revolutions were dependent on cellphones and word of mouth to spread messages from the internet.
In Canada, are we still excluding a population that doesn't have access to the internet?
Are current political movements too dependent on the internet? Or is that necessary today?
Could a movement still be successful without any facilitation through technology?
Even though we have high literacy rates, the majority of young Canadians are still passive towards most movements. How can we get more young people involved in politics?
“...a literate, internet-savvy child quickly figured out the limits of what an illiterate mother could teach him or her, compared to the information available through independent reading or interactions on the web.” (44)
For a student population such as Western's, what methods would be the most successful to raise awareness and gather supporters for causes?