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Transcript of Biome
2. Mongolian Gerbil
3. Northern Lynx
4. Saker Falcon
5. Milk Vetch 5 Signature Species: Cheatgrass was originally introduced to cold grasslands in the USA in the 1800s. Native to Europe, Africa, and Asia, Cheatgrass overtakes native vegetation; driving some plants near or to extinction. Cheatgrass is most prevalent in areas of low precipitation, and can drastically alter the ecosystem in an area. Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) . i-iv. Limiting Factor . Would a cold grassland harbor any chemosynthetic organisms? Since cold grassland biomes are found mainly away from the ocean, it would be unlikely to find any chemosynthesis organisms. The conditions in a cold grassland are generally not extreme enough to push any organisms to become chemosynethetic. Symbiosis 1. Fleas land on a squirrel in the grasslands. The fleas survive from the blood of the squirrel and also are transported. The squirrel lives with constant irritation and eventually gets anemia and dies. This is an example of parasitism because the fleas benefit and harm the squirrel in the process. Succession Scenario Due to the fact that most plant species in a cold grassland are usually not very complex, it would not take a large amount of time for a grassland to grow back to what most people would consider to be its typical conditions. After a fire which destroyed all plants, grasses and weeds would first emerge. Small shrubs would begin to emerge next, followed by primarily shrubs and small trees. Finally, after many years, large shrubs and large trees would begin be prevalent in the grassland. Humans and the Cold Grassland Biome The cold grasslands are essential to human life in many ways. Humans depend on the cold grassland biome for large amounts of wheat and other grains. In addition, humans hunt the animals in this area, as many unique species exist only in the cold grasslands. Humans also keep a large amount of livestock in areas in this biome. Finally, humans maintain the cold grassland biome by periodically setting fires (both on purpose and accidentally) clearing the way for new species and for healthier lands. Adaptations: 1. Most gerbils achieve shelter by burrowing into the ground. The Mongolian Gerbil, an animal unique to the Cold Grassland biome, makes its habitat utilizing grasses and shrubs for protection. This adaptation has made the Mongolian Gerbil perfectly suited to live in the Cold Grassland biome, where grasses and shrubs are abundant. Generalist: Specialist: Climate Graph Climate and its affect on cold grassland The climate of a cold grassland biome has a dramatic influence on it. Most cold grasslands, such as the Steppes, have a very cold and dry climate. This lack of moisture provides a great environment for many shorter species of grass to grow in cold grasslands. The lack of moisture also imposes a limit on the amount of species of plants and animals that can tolerate such an environment, thereby creating the vast, open areas of mainly short plant life that define a cold grassland as a cold grassland. Kyrgyzstan Grassland - Central Asia For a few months out of the year (varied depending on where the area is located) the Cold Grassland biome has period of cold (average between 15-35 degrees Fahrenheit) and occasional snowfall of around 4-5 inches. This cold is a major limiting factor for many species within the biome as resources become scarce and shelter becomes crucial. As these conditions ensue, survival of the fittest takes control and the population is limited. 2. A wolf hunts and kills a deer in the Steppe grasslands. The wolf eats the deer and abandons the carcass. A vulture comes by to consume the remains of the deer carcass. This is an example of Commensalism because the vulture benefits and the wolf is neither benefited nor hurt. Cover Sheet (q.20) Biome: Cold Grassland Biome
By: Rob Schacht
Slide 3: What makes a biome a biome?
Slide 4: 5 Signature species
Slide 5: 1 Nonnative Species
Slide 6: Food Chain
Slide 7: Food Web
Slide 8: Energy Pyramid (With Trophic levels!)
Slide 9: Where does the energy come from? Slide 10: Why is the energy in a pyramid?
Slide 11: What role does the Biome perform for (i-iv)
Slide 12: Limiting Factor
Slide 13: Chemosynthetic organisms
Slide 14: Symbiosis
Slide 15: Succession
Slide 16: Humans and the Cold Grassland
Slide 17: Map of Earth
Slide 18: Adaptations
Slide 19: Generalist and specialist
Slide 20: Climate Graph
Slide 21: How does the climate create the biome?
Slide 22: Landscape Where does the energy come from? Ultimately, all energy in the energy pyramid comes from the sun. A one way process, the sun's energy flows through plants/producers through photosynthesis. The energy from those plants is consumed by and flows through to the first level consumers, which are consumed by the second and eventually third level consumers. The energy is not cycled and the process is strictly one-way, although due to the sun it is continuous. Why is it a pyramid? The food pyramid's pyramid shape accounts for the 90% loss of energy as it passes through each trophic level. Each time something is consumed by another animal, the amount of energy is degraded and the energy obtained by the animal above that which it is consuming is less than the original consumer had. The pyramid gradually tapers off, as does the amount of available energy. A prime generalist species in the Cold Grassland biome is a mouse. A mouse can survive a broad range of environmental conditions both hot and cold. A mouse does not require a very specific environment and is crucial to the survival of many animals within the Cold Grassland biome. The Corsac Fox is a prime example of a specialist species in the Cold Grassland biome. The Corsac Fox requires the cold/fluctuating temperatures of the Cold Grassland and Steppe for both hunting and its habitat. The Corsac Fox is also very specialized to the Cold Grassland biome because it requires the specific soil as well as the mountains/hills of the Cold Grassland biome. It would not survive if placed in another environment. 2. The Saiga Antelope's strangely bulbous nose is actually an extremely sophisticated adaptation to the temperatures in the Cold Grassland biome. The Saiga's large nose is actually made of many bones, hairs, and mucus-secretion glands. During the hot summer, the Saiga's large, developed nose filters dust kicked up during summer herd migrations. In the winter, the complex nose heats up the cold air before entering the Saiga's body, therefore reducing heat loss. This adaptation is extremely productive for living in the Cold Grassland biome. 3. The Northern Lynx is an essential predator in the Cold Grassland biome. The Lynx has an overdeveloped sense of sight, an essential part to its survival in the cold grasslands. The Lynx's vision is specially developed to see accurately over long distances. Since the land in the cold grassland is mostly flat and wide open, this vision adaptation allows the Northern Lynx to spot prey from great distances, aiding the Lynx's survival in the cold grasslands. 4. Fringed Sagebrush is specially developed to survive the constantly-fluctuating conditions of the cold grasslands. Fringed Sagebrush has a highly-developed root system, with deep taproots in areas of low water and a large amount of surface roots when the water is easily available. This complex root system is an adaptation that helps the Fringed Sagebrush to sustain itself over periods of drought which occur occasionally in the Cold Grassland biome. ii. The Cold Grassland biome is crucial to the carbon cycle with its various contributions of grassland fires. As a fire burns, stored carbon is released back into the atmosphere and cycled once more through the carbon cycle. The Cold Grasslands have fires in summer due to the vast amounts of plants especially during time of drought. This cycles carbon to a great extent. i. Various animals within the Cold Grassland biome cycle phosphorus efficiently. As the many animals contained within the biome release waste, they cycle phosphorus out. As the Cold Grassland's animals consume, they take phosphorus in, cycling phosphorus in yet another vital way. iii. The Cold Grassland biome is the ideal source for livestock storage, and humans use it accordingly. Agriculture is popular in cold grasslands due to the wonderfully flat soil. Humans add nitrous oxide through livestock wastes and fertilizers. In the Cold Grassland biome, this is especially true, as these areas are heavily used for livestock and agriculture in general. This adding of nitrous oxide is prevalent in the overall nitrogen cycle. iv. After water extracts sulfur from various rocks and minerals, the sulfur is taken up and cycled by various plants. The Cold Grasslands help with this in a huge way, considering they are composed of mostly plants. This abundance of plant life quickly and efficiently cycles sulfur. Works Cited King, Jerrinson. "Steppe Biomes." Cold Grassland Animals. Portlandschools, 21 June 2009. Web. 06 Jan. 2013. V.N, Mary E. "Steppe Biome." Steppe Biome. Blue Planet, 03 Feb. 2000. Web. 06 Jan. 2013. Smith, Jakob M. "Global Envrionment-Grasslands." G.E Biology Biomes. Global Environment, 02 Jan. 2002. Web. 06 Jan. 2013. Thomas, Robert. "The Grassland Biome." UCMP Grasslands. UCMP, 03 Mar. 2002. Web. 06 Jan. 2013.
**Slide 23=Works Cited