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Teaching Second Grade Science: The Human Body
Transcript of Teaching Second Grade Science: The Human Body
Molina and Sangerman:
The Teachers Guide
Teaching Second Grade Science
The Human Body
Science isn’t just a body of knowledge — it's a way of acquiring scientific concepts and principles, and the best programs get students interested in investigating the world around them. As children learn facts and vocabulary, they develop the ability to ask scientific questions, plan experiments to answer these questions, and develop reasonable explanations based on their observations.
About the Lesson Plan
This lesson plan contains detailed descriptions for teachers so they will be able to get their students to: engage, explore, explain, and assess their learning about the human body. It is so descriptive, that it will be very easy on the teacher to re- create the materials used in this lesson.
This lesson will enable students to do the following: identify the major organs of the body and their primary function, identify major systems of the body, and describe behaviors that protect the body structure and organs.
The Purpose of this Lesson
The purpose of this lesson is to teach students about the basic structures and functions of the human body. The student will benefit from this activity because they will learn about the human body and how it relates to personal health.
Students will learn the major organs in the body and their functions
Students will learn about the skeletal system.
Students will learn the major systems of the body
Students will learn behaviors that will help protect the body structure
What is the purpose of our body parts:
the brain, heart, lungs, stomach, bones, and muscles?
Per Group/ Stop
zip-top plastic bag
cardboard toilet paper tubes or stethoscope
die-cut school bus
one 9- or 10-inch round balloon
different types of dried pasta
black construction paper
pitcher of water
jigsaw puzzle (approx. 12 pieces)
The Magic School Bus: Inside the Human Body
by Joanna Cole and Bruce Degen
Set up the six “bus stops,” or stations, with signs and pictures or models of the different organs. Also, place enough materials for each group/student at each station.
Before going to the different stations, you may want to have students set up their notebook by folding their paper into six equal parts (one section for each station) and labeling each part.
Instruct students never to taste or place in their mouths any substances used in the science laboratory setting.
Instruct students not to touch materials without specific instructions.
Ask students to report all accidents immediately.
For the balloon activity, each student should inflate a NEW balloon and then throw it away.
Read the book The Magic School Bus: Inside the Human Body.
Show the video Muscles and Bones With Skin All Around
Give each student their school bus die-cut and explain that they are going to take a trip to learn about the parts of the human body and their different jobs. They will stop at each of the six “bus stops” to learn more about the heart, brain, lungs, stomach, muscles, and bones in our bodies.
Instruct students to keep notes of their data and observations for each station.
Stop 1: The Brain
Time one student doing the jigsaw puzzle and record the score. Have the same person do the puzzle two more times, timing her/him each time.
Ask: How are the person's times different? Did they improve the more times the person did the puzzle?
If the answer is yes, it means the puzzle doer's brain learned how to do the task. If the answer is no, her/his brain is still learning and needs to keep trying. Remember, what is easy for one person may be difficult for another. The more frequently we do a certain task, the easier the task becomes. This is because our brain learns by doing. Each time we repeat a task, connections in our brains are strengthened. This means that the brain doesn't have to figure out a problem from the beginning each time because it has already learned how to get to the answer.
Stop 2: The Heart
Pair up and listen to your partner's heartbeat by placing the tube over the heart. Count the number of beats per 30 seconds. Add this number together twice to find out how many times per minute the person's heart beats. Have one partner run in place, then listen again. Write down what you hear and calculate the new beats per minute. Ask: Are the numbers the same? Explain.
Over 170 years ago, a man named Laennec invented the first stethoscope. It was a wooden tube about 1 inch in diameter and about 10 inches long. In this activity, you used a cardboard tube as a simple stethoscope to listen to your heartbeat before and after exercise.
Ask: How did your heartbeat change?
The heart beats faster after the exercise in order to pump more blood (oxygen) to the working muscles.
Stop 3: The Lungs
Each student should take a balloon and stretch it until it is ready to blow up. Students should take a deep breath and blow up the balloon as much as they can with one breath. Students should pinch the opening of the balloon tightly so air cannot escape, and look at the size of the balloon. Ask students to compare the size of the balloons in each group. Ask: Are the balloons the same size? Explain. Order the size of your group’s balloons from smallest to largest. When finished with balloons, they should be deflated and placed in a trash can.
Discuss the difference in the sizes of the balloons and why that might be. The balloons show your lung capacity, or how much air your lungs are capable of holding. Measuring your lung capacity helps you determine the amount of physical stamina you have available to run races, swim, blow a musical instrument, hold a note, etc. Many factors can cause differences in lung capacity.
Ask: Was there a difference between boys and girls? Was there a difference between taller and shorter people? Did anyone have a cold, allergy, or other illness? Is anyone an athlete? Is air pollution a problem for anyone? Does anyone play a wind instrument?
Stop 4: The Stomach
Put one saltine cracker and a small amount of water into a bag. Seal the bag tightly. Take turns gently massaging the outside of the bag with your fingers.
Ask: How did the cracker change from before it was placed in the bag to after it was mixed with water in the bag? What do you think the cracker in this activity represents? The bag? The water? The bag represents the stomach, the water represents digestive juices, and the hand movements represent the action of the muscles in the outer layer of the stomach. Ask: Why are these important?
Stop 5: Bones
Have students watch the "Dry Bones Connected" video.
After watching the video have students create their own skeleton using the dried pasta, construction paper, and glue.
Provide your students with a word bank with the different names of the bones (option: add some names of bones that were not discussed to make it more challenging). Have them label the different bones of their pasta skeleton using the white crayon
Ask: Where are your bones? How can you tell where your bones are? Have students feel for the bones inside their bodies.
The skeleton is a system of bones in the human body. It is the framework that supports and protects the body. It also works with our muscles to move our body. We have 206 bones in the adult skeleton.
Stop 6: Muscles
Complete the following list of tasks. Decide whether or not you can control these tasks and put them in the correct place on the T-chart.
1. Stand Up 5. Get goose Bumps
2. Turn a page 6. Raise your hand
3. Sneeze 7. Make your blood stop pumping
4. Walk 8. Make your stomach growl
Ask: Which of the tasks could you control? Which couldn't you control? Muscles can be classified by how they are controlled. Discuss voluntary and involuntary muscles. Explain that tasks you can control use voluntary muscles. Explain that tasks we were not able to do use involuntary muscles. Most skeletal muscles are voluntary muscles, which allow us to easily move our bones. Heart and stomach muscles are mostly involuntary muscles.
Introducing the topic
Getting your students to
in the lesson
The Bus Stops
Getting your students to
the body and
what they're learning
Getting your students to
their knowledge of the topic
Extend and Apply
On butcher paper, have students work in groups to outline their bodies, draw and label the organs, and describe the function of each organ. Present this information to others.
Knowing your students understanding
on the topic through
Assess student learning through class discussions and science notebook entries. The following three-point rubric may be adapted to evaluate students’ work during these lessons:
: Students are highly engaged in class discussions; were able to demonstrate a clear understanding of the vocabulary; give correct examples appropriate to the lesson.
: Students participate in class discussions; were able to demonstrate a basic understanding of the vocabulary; give mostly correct examples; drew pictures that were somewhat appropriate to the lesson.
Students participate minimally in class discussions; unable to demonstrate a basic understanding of the vocabulary; could not give examples of the lesson. Pictures were incomplete and/or did not clearly identify lesson objectives.
Teaching Aides Continued
Muscles and Bones with Skin All Around
Dry Bones Connected
The Provided Disc Includes:
Teacher Background Information on the Different Body Parts
The Two Videos Shown
Signs for The Different Bus Stops
Die- Cut Out School Bus Template
Four Tables/ Charts for the Different Activites
Recommended Word Bank