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Proteins/Amino Acids/Enzymes

Overview Of A Few of Life's Important Macromolecules

Brandon Lew

on 25 September 2013

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Transcript of Proteins/Amino Acids/Enzymes

Condensation Reactions/ Dehydration Synthesis
DATE: September 23, 2013
CREATED BY: Melissa De Guzman, Julian Cruz, Brandon Lew
TEAM: Stressed 4 Lyfe
What is a Monomer?
a molecule that can be bonded to other identical molecules to form a polymer
an example for the monomer of proteins is amino acids
What is a Polymer?
a substance that has a molecular structure consisting of many monomers
An example of a polymer related to our subject is hemoglobin, the protein in blood.
Amino Acids
Amino Acids and Proteins?
What Elements make up
monomer of a protein
Examples: Alanine, Arginine, Glycine, Glutamine, Lysine, Glutamate, Proline, Histidine, and Phenylalanine
first formed in 1953 by scientists Stanley Miller and Harold Urey
discovered in the University of Chicago based off Russian scientists
CHON -> amino acids -> proteins
20% carbon, 50% hydrogen, 20% oxygen, and 10% nitrogen (2:5:2:1)
hundreds of amino acids in existence
separated into essential and non-essential categories
humans need twenty amino acids in order to survive
nine cannot be created through the bodily systems; they must be taken from food
2 molecules covalently bonded by loss of water molecule
1 monomer contributes -OH and other monomer contributes H+
Reverse of dehydration reaction
A break between the two monomers occur by adding a water molecule
Ex: While the stomach digests food it breaks the polymers by hydrolysis
Condensation Reaction/Dehydration Synthesis
Where Are Dehydration
Collagen = 25% to 35% of total protein content in body.
a.) Supports connective tissues
b.) Found in bones, blood vessels, muscles, etc.
c.) Gives skin strength, waterproofing, & elasticity
Where Are Hydrolysis
Found in digestive tract
Gastric Acids alter stomach acidity, allowing to reveal peptide bonds
Stomach sends enzymes to attack polymers, so hydrolysis can be sped up
Monomers distributed to all body cells
Specialized macromolecules helping to speed up chemical reactions.
Enzymes help with hydrolysis to break up polymers faster.
Amino Acid Formation
Functional Groups
amino acids must have carboxyl & amino groups
are specific groups of elements bonded together
Amino Acids In Depth
Dehydration and Hydrolysis
Bonds and Proteins
peptide bond: the bond between two amino acids
polypeptide bond: the chain of many amino acids linked by peptide bonds
proteins: molecules with 1+ polypeptides folded in a 3-D structure
1) What is the name of the process where amino acids bond? Explain this reaction. For full points, include a diagram of the reaction, labeling the following.
a) functional groups
b) peptide bonds

2) About how many amino acids do humans need in order to survive? Give an example of one.

3) Explain the role of amino acids in the human body. Do you think we would exist without amino acids? Explain your answers as thoroughly as possible.
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