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ECE 350- Stages of Play
Transcript of ECE 350- Stages of Play
child’s total development as good food, cleanliness, and rest.
Oppenheim, 1984 Elements needed for children to develop play skills Before we begin Caregivers with an understanding of each child's development Environment that can support play and development Mildred Parten (1932) was one of the early researchers studying children at play.
She focused on the social interactions between children during play activities.
Parten's categories of play are not hierarchical.
Depending on the circumstances, children may engage in any of the different types of play.
Parten does note, however, that in her research with two- to five-year-olds, "participation in the most social types of groups occurs most frequently among the older children" Cooperative
play Parallel play Make Believe, Fantasy Play, Dramatic Play Dramatic play permits children to fit the reality of the world into their own interests and knowledge. One of the purest forms of symbolic thought available to young children, dramatic play contributes strongly to the intellectual development of children (Piaget, 1962). Symbolic play is a necessary part of a child's language development (Edmonds, 1976).
Drama: What It Is and What It Isn't
Drama is the portrayal of life as seen from the actor's view. In early childhood, drama needs no written lines to memorize, structured behavior patterns to imitate, nor is an audience needed. Children need only a safe, interesting environment and freedom to experiment with roles, conflict, and problem solving. When provided with such an environment, children become interested in and will attend to the task at hand and develop their concentration (Way, 1967). Opportunities for dramatic play that are spontaneous, child-initiated, and open-ended are important for all young children. Because individual expression is key, children of all physical and cognitive abilities enjoy and learn from dramatic play and creative dramatics. In early childhood, the term dramatic play is most frequently used and the process is the most important part, not the production. Dramatic play expands a child's awareness of self in relation to others and the environment. Drama is not the production of plays usually done to please adults rather than children (Wagner, 1976).
Elements of Drama in the Early Childhood Classroom
Dramatic play includes role-playing, puppetry, and fantasy play. It does not require interaction with another.
Socio-dramatic play is dramatic play with the additional component of social interaction with either a peer or teacher (Mayesky, 1988; Smilansky, 1968).
Creative dramatics involves spontaneous, creative play. It is structured and incorporates the problem solving skills of planning and evaluation.
Children frequently reenact a scene or a story. Planning and evaluating occurs in creative dramatics (Chambers, 1970, 1977) Play is the Thing What are the different stages of play: Under 3? 3-5? 6-8 Parten's Stages of Play Associative Play Modes of Representation In Play is the Thing, what do the authors mean by, "Modes of Representation? Discuss types of play and how they "represent a child's learning" Dramatic Play? A Conversation with Vivian Paley Download the article listed on Blackboard Onlooker Play Elena Bugrimenko and Elena Sminova have proposed five stages in symbolic play (ages 18 to 30 months) Stage 1 : Children play only with realistic toys and show no interest in object substitution performed by adults Stage 2: Children automatically imitate adult-initiated object substitutions, but do not appear to understand that one object has been substituted for other. Stage 3: Children independently imitate object
substitutions previously performed by an adult. Stage4: Children initiate their own object substitutions,
but do not rename the objects with substitute names
Stage 5: Children originate and rename Stage I: Imitative Role Play: In this initial stage of play, children try to act, talk, and dress like people they know. Children use real objects as props. They depend on an element of reality in their play. For instance, a child may pick up a telephone and pretend to “talk on the phone like Mommy” or hold a doll and “feed the baby.” One starts developing a concept of a ‘pretended role’ but needs to ground that with the actual props that are used and this play is a solitary activity. Stage II: Make-Believe Play: In the second stage, children’s play is enriched by their imaginations. Now less dependent on concrete props for role-playing, children may use a string as a firefighter’s hose, or an envelope may be Mommy’s briefcase. The ability to make-believe moves beyond the scope of real props or costumes. Children also learn to use their imaginations to invent actions and situations. Dramatic play is no longer confined to real-life events. At this stage, children often use such play to help them understand feelings or deal with fears and worries. Point to note that one has developed a concept of ‘pretend roles’ and does not need to depend on external props for achieving that role. The role-playing is still mostly a solitary activity. Stage III: Socio-Dramatic Play: Socio-dramatic play emerges at the time children begin seeking the company of others. Socio-dramatic play includes elements of imitative play and make-believe play; however, it stands apart from the earlier stages in that it requires verbal interaction between two or more children. Because of its interactive nature, socio-dramatic play necessitates planning. One child chooses to be the teacher and the other the student; one child can be a firefighter and the other a would-be victim. Because of its more complex story lines, socio-dramatic play requires that children spend a significant amount of time in this type of play. This play, in my view, is characterized by role-play involving two persons. One knows what role one is supposed to play and what the other person has to play and one may even switch roles during the play. This marks the beginning of ‘social’ pretend play. What is the role of the teacher? Chapter 2
What are teachers providing?