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Common Core Unit by Unit

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kay Whitworth

on 30 June 2015

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Transcript of Common Core Unit by Unit

Stages for Long Term Unit Development Planning:
Up Front Continued
3. Selecting
Purpose: Choosing reading materials (anchor text) with differing levels of complexity , and supplemental materials for differentiation.
Example: Choosing one text such as The Diary of Anne Frank then selecting excerpts from the book, based on the differing ability of your students, for them to close read.
Documents Used: Core texts list from unit plan including quantitative and qualitative measure of complexity.

Writing unit plans down results in intentional teaching.
2. Planning final product/assessment
Purpose: Align work to standards and determine a rigorous end goal that engages students in reading,writing, listening, and/or speaking. (This would be where you follow a backward design and create your test.)
Example: Well researched public service announcement in which students would combine primary sources from the Holocaust along with carefully crafted messages about bullying so that other teens might choose to be heroes rather than bystanders.
Documents Used: CCR Standards and Performance Level Descriptors

Stages for Long Term Unit Development Planning:
(Timing: As the unit unfolds)
5. Monitoring
Purpose: To determine, while the unit is going on, what they know and what they need to know more of; adjusting your day to day lessons to accommodate your individual students. Students present their final project and /or take final assessment.
Example: Teachers meet to discuss progress of the unit and modify their planning calendar to benefit students who are struggling. Don't forget to give praise!
Documents Used: Lesson plans including close reading, adjusted daily lessons
Stages for Long Term Unit Development Planning:
(Timing: After the unit)
6. Reflecting
Purpose: After the unit is completed the teachers meet one final time to discuss what worked best and what should be omitted for the next lesson. teachers also look to see if targeted students showed growth.
Example: With the Holocaust/bullying connection lesson three types of target students were reflected on:
Daquan-most capable reader
Victor-often less engaged
Christine-struggling reader
All of these students learned not just something but they learned the
Documents Used: Revisions to unit plans-both the one you just finished and the one coming up next
Common Core Unit by Unit
Chapter 1 Articulate Long Range Plans
Group 2

Seeing the Need for Change
5 Critical Moves for implementing Reading Standards Across the Curriculum

Cheryl Becker Dobbertin
Chapter 3 Develop Student-Shared Goals
Group 4
Chapter 4 Select Strategies that Build Understand
Group 5
Chapter 5 Purposefully
Moving Beyond Tracking
How Historians Read
Historians read primary and secondary sources in deep Analytical ways.
they look at individual words, phrases, and entire documents in terms of what they say or don't say
Historians decide whether primary sources reflect the times they were developed, the authors who wrote them or whether they stand in contrast to the expected.
Designing Strategic Questions
The Impact of Clear Targets and Assessments on Student Learning
A Close Look at Close Reading
The Problem with Assigning and Assessing:

Giving students a text to read and end of chapter questions to answer does not assure learning. It only shows that they read or didn't read the assignment.
Strategic questions are questions that
require students to return to the text, re-read, and select important details and key ideas from the text to formulate their responses.
Keys to Help You Make This Critical Move
Making it Real
Why Plan Differently for the CC?

Strategic Questions Fall Into 3 Broad Categories
Josh Needs to Read Better
Where Student-Shared Learning Targets Come From
Shifting to Prepare-Process-Assess:

Teachers must move from "assign and assess" to a paradigm that engages students more deeply with complex texts.

Planning units in the way Dobbertin suggests forces teachers to "think deeply about their choices and cross-check that they are making the right choices" (12). Planning in this way maximizes learning.
Paul and Michelle
1. Questions about what the text says, both explicitly and implicitly.
* Meet CCRS 1-3

2. Questions about the author's craft.
* Meet CCRS 4-6

3. Evaluation and analysis questions.
* Meet CCRS 7-9

Exploring Local History
Establish a compelling "why" that drives students to read, think, write, talk, and act.
Ex. "TKAM" Theme
Boo Radley's invisibility
Students use the tracker as a formative assessment to track and indicate where the students think they are by considering the work they have completed.
When doing an assignment, teachers have to determine whether it is best to show the students the model text before they start rendering their product or after the product is done.
When the students are starting a new skill that they have no background in, then upfront models are important or scaffolding.
When the skill is something that students have tried before, it is important to examine and analyze the models after students have a working product. This will motivate students to want to revise their work and think critically about how to produce their best work with the model in mind.
Students need to have a growth mindset. In a growth-mindset, students know that their first product is not the only product, but a step that leads to the success of the final product.
Create context by engaging students in discussion and research of local history.
Question Starters for
Category 1
Successfully planned Holocaust lessons that covered Reading and Writing, however it lacked RIGOR and RELEVANCE. So the two, with guidance of the Author Cheryl Becker Dobbertin, began to rethink, revise, and Grasp the "Big Picture" in order to create a Unit that would create :
Independent Learners
Builders of Content Knowledge
Critical Thinkers
Capable users of technical tools
Globally Aware
Organize a shoe drive for homeless
Students will: research, write stories, write letters
SPED student in 11th grade
Needed 55 to pass NYS Regents ELA exam
Necessary skills overlooked due to protecting him
Did not need program or technological aids
Needed skills:

Chunk Complex Text
Example: On the Origins of Species by Means of Natural Selection

read the text once for gist
circle unfamiliar words
discuss key vocabulary
revisit the text multiple times through strategic questions led by teacher
Learning targets are intended for students and teachers in order to understand both long term and short term goals
Student shared goals help engage, support, and hold students accountable for for their learning and for sharing their understanding through speaking and writing.
"The Cake"
Joseph Heller's
Catch 22
Generic social studies standards related to WWII
Textbooks and primary sources.
"The Frosting"
Interviews with local veterans, hearing about their experiences and emotions.
Who? What? Where? When? Why? Use specific details from the text to support your answer.
Which details should be included in a summary of [blank]? Why?
What conclusions can you draw about...?
What can you infer about ...?
Why do you think that ...?
How could you explain ...?
What reasons might explain...?
What does [blank] mean?
What is the significance of ...?
Works for Andrew!
Over time, teachers asking students to read closely can expect that student willart to develop their own internal questions to help them understand the author's purpose.
NOTE: All of these questions should be followed by "What evidence can you draw from the text to support your answer?"
Tackling complex text has to happen with the teacher, and often with peers as well. Reading should be done in the classroom, not just assigned at home.
Question Starters for Category 2
Strategies That Help Students
Dig Even Deeper
Planning a Compelling Context
An Effective Learning Target Helps Students To:
..like icing on a cake..
A. Understand and be able to communicate effectively about the specific learning goals they are expected to master.

B. Develop a Vision for what it looks like to be successful

C. Track their own progress so that they own their goals and develop a sense of efficacy.

D. Efficacy can come both by being successful or by being initially unsuccessful but then overcoming a challenge.

How would you define...?
In your own words, what is...?
Why did the author choose...?
Why does the author say...?
Where is an example of...?
How would this text be different if...?
How is (this section,para.) related to...?
Why did the author organize [blank]?
What is the author's attitude toward...? How do you know?
What does the author want you to think about...?
What evidence do you have?
.many ways to frost the Standards cake...

Teachers and students work together to develop understanding by reading, talking, organizing, drawing, and writing about it.
Paul and Michelle knew what they wanted to teach, but they also knew they had to make it more rigorous.

After making it more rigorous, they went back and made it more relevant by creating a more relevant assessment: A PSA on imovie rather than a research paper.
Why Plan Differently?
Benefits of exploring local history:
* grapple with an intriguing question
* investigate a local injustice, problem or concern
* teach others about local history
* examine events or ideas from multiple perspectives
* analyze texts for authorship & craft
Letting students have a hand in setting clear targets and goals for them as a class allow them to take ownership of the targets and be responsible for the process that it takes to meet those targets. For example:
Translate standards into student-friendly and contextualized long-term targets (i.e. use "I can" statements.
Show them the standards and consider what steps need to be taken to meet a target.
2nd Reading
Work in small groups to complete tasks that would help the students further discuss and process the text.
Make or do something to solidify their understanding.
Claim-Evidence-Interpretation graphic organizer
Begin with the end in mind
Create summative assessment as a guide post and pretest
Long range plans-teachers cannot simply tweak old lessons-it's time investment
Give students a real world purpose-make it personal
Learning targets are for students and teacher-narrows down what they should learn and not know for unit
Students have more pride in their work.
"If I don't do it, my lessons become just a series of Activities
rather than a deliberate scaffolding of learning."
Students are more engaged.
All kids are not expected to get it on the first read. The first read helps students build confidence that, through persistent work, they can make hard text make sense
Students are more focused.
Question Starters for Category 3
Engage readers across multiple texts
* create sets of texts
* balance of fiction & non-fiction
* not just 1 of each

What are
Essential Questions?
Surface Change vs. Substantive Change
They ...
* are not answerable in a brief sentence
* stimulate thought to provoke inquiry & to spark more questions
* require multiple complex texts.
As opposed to Focus Questions
* are day to day objective based questions
* students can answer in one class
* answered from just one text
so. . .
1. Choose texts to lead them to the answer, but make supporting an answer difficult.
2. Use questions that encompass the ideas being studied in addition to the literary skills being developed.
Use texts that have many different perspectives:
Essential Questions
Topic - "Man vs Wild" Essential Questions

Texts: Young Goodman Brown, Why do narrators leave some ,
Into the Wild; Roosevelt's things unsaid?
remarks on America's AND
national parks; Two at Should mankind tame the
Lobo Lake, essay wilderness?
Here's an example:
Laura Hillenbrand's
Jeane Watatsuki Houston's
Farewell to Manzanar
Primary resources related to Pearl Harbor and Japanese internment camps
How is [blank] like [blank]?
How is [blank] different from [blank]?
What patterns can you find in ...?
How would you describe the organization of ...?
What is this author's argument? What evidence is used to support that argument?
Which detail does this author use to convince ...?
What, specifically, caused you to believe...?
What, specifically, caused you to disagree...?
What, specifically, makes this a good example of...?
What, specifically, strengthens/weakens...?

Strategies That Help Students Dig Even Deeper
One Caution:
The teacher must do the work before the students can. YOU must be compelled by the text before students can be.
Also, teachers must dismiss any "bias" so that students can appropriately discuss.
Scaffolding and support that students need are not available with "assign and assess"
Creating and Organizing a Variety of Targets
Comprehension questions in textbooks and developed "on the fly" work against deep reading.
3rd Reading
Student read for gist
note confusion
talk with each other
review graphic from earlier reading
students complete the
Claim-Evidence-Interpretation graphic organizer
"Cold Call" Strategy (giving students think time then randomly calling on students rather than asking who knows the answer.
Teachers shows student how to use the graphic organizer to create a summary of the close read.
Assessing Students' Reading Work


Some targets reflect content mastered and help determine what students should be able to do when they have acquired mastery.

Aspects of progress


The teacher provided students with models and exemplars; a clear, student-friendly rubric; and targeted feedback as they learned the process over time.
Selecting Additional Processing Strategies


You have a great question and can search out texts

But usually...
You must consider the heart of the texts you have or are expected to teach.

Ask yourself the questions on Pg. 24

Make sure they are not focus questions!
Foundational Strategies: Close Reading and Strategic Questioning

Help teachers collect and examine artifacts of students' reading and thinking for the purpose of both formative and summative assessment
provide a structure that will help students work together effectively
Help students dig even deeper into the text
Keep the brainwork you are asking students to complete feel fresh and mentally stimulating
Strategic questioning and text-dependent questioning are the same thing.
There is a motivational link between doing the reading & research required to learn about these issues & the writing & presentation that students do to try to make a change.
Selecting Additional Processing Strategies
More ideas on Pg. 26
To come up with more ideas, step out of the school box & ask questions of local organizations & experts. Question ideas on pg. 27
Close Reading Goals:
Students learn about whatever they are reading about, the content, or story, the text contains.
Students learn about vocabulary and syntax and integrate new words into their writing and thinking.
Students learn about how the text is written, specific structures, word choice, author's intended impact, and the strength of the author's argument.
Standard 1: Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make logical inferences from it; cite textutal evidence
Strategies to Build the Skill
Teachers serve as students' reading guides, keeping students from getting lost through the structures and strategic questions.
Concept Ladder, p. 74
Read Like a Reader/Read Like a Writer, p.79
Anticipation/Evidence Guides, p.82
Text-Tagging, p. 85
Collaborative Comprehension, p.92
List-Group-Label, p.102
Your texts need to be both compelling AND complex.
Students should be engaged, but in service of working hard to understand what the text is offering them.
Standard 2: Determine central ideas or themes of a text and analyze their development; summarize the key supporting details and ideas
Preparing Students for Close Reading:

Remind students of the purpose of reading
Clarify the learning target/objective
Build essential background knowledge
Ensure students know necessary vocabulary
Defining text complexity is.... well.... complex!
Concept Map, p.73
Collaborative Comprehension, p.92
Summary Frame. p. 99, 100
Summary Wheel, p. 99, 100
Standard 3: Analyze how and why individuals, events, and ideas develop and interact over the course of a text.
Double Entry Journal, p. 77
Collaborative Comprehension, p. 92
For example, The Book Thief has a 730 Lexile measure (which means it can be easily read by second or third graders. However, the book is about the Holocaust, and is narrated by death personified. This makes the book an upper middle school or high school book.
Standard 4: Interpret words and phrases as they are used in a text, including determining technical, connotative, and figurative meanings, and analyze how specific word choices shape meaning or tone.
Concept/Vocabulary Sort, p. 76
Read Like a Reader/Read Like a Writer, p. 79
Contextual Redefinition, p. 103
Many texts are simply compelling, but don't have a great deal of complexity. The author states, "Suzanne Collins'
The Hunger Games
is a great example of this kind of book. The plot leaves you breathless, it has well-developed characters.... It's vivid and straightforward. Its Lexile measure is 810, which means lots of kids...... can make great sense of it" (34).
Standard 5: Analyze the structure of texts, including how specific sentences, paragraphs, and larger portions of the text relate to each other and the whole
Purposeful differentiation and scaffolding of assignments in a logical and content based way is important. Begin with a clear standards based objective.
Purposeful Pre-Assessment requires answering of the following:
What are you pre-assessing?
1. Is it knowledge based?
2. Is it skills and reasoning based?
3. What are the students' general
reading levels?
4. Have I asked the students to
read enough primary sources
to gauge the skills?
In essence, the question was, "Did
we differentiate enough for each skill for each student?"
Read Like a Reader/Read Like a Writer, p. 79
Preview and Predict, p.84
Claim-Evidence-Interpretation, p.86
Textbook Buddy, p.88
Jigsaw, p. 89
One must 1st decide what the assignment is meant to measure
differentiating assessments simply for the sake of difference does not result in equivalent assesments.
Adults confront difficult texts every day. The
difference is that there nobody around to make
it "easier" to read. So why do we do this for our
Standard 6: Assess how point of view or purpose shapes the content and style of a text
Double entry Journals, p.77
Read Like a Reader/Read Like a Writer, p.79
It Says/I Say/And so, p. 90
Collaborative Comprehension, p. 92
Reading from Different Perspectives, p. 95
Standard 7: Integrate and evaluate content presented in diverse media and formats, including visually and quantitatively, as well as in words.
Research Folders, p. 81
Collaborative Comprehension, p. 92
RAFT Reading and Writing, p. 97
Differentiation should also be based on reading "readiness" instead of simple reading proficiency.

Finding Complex Yet Compelling Texts:
Standard 8: Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, including the validity of the reasoning as well as the relevance and sufficiency of the evidence.
Ask yourself:
If I were teaching this, what would I do with it?
Double Entry Journals, p. 77
Anticipation/Evidence Guides, p. 82
Claim-Evidence-Interpretation, p. 86
It Says/I Say/And So, p. 90
Reading from Different Perspectives, p.95

Reading "readiness" is created by the x factors of each individual student.

i.e.. A student may have a heard the stories of a grandparent who had experienced the holocaust first hand, giving the student a leg up when reading and understanding works based in that era such as "The Diary of Anne Frank."
What would I combine it with and why?
What could I help the kids notice?
Standard 9: Analyze how two or more texts address similar themes or topics in order to build knowledge or to compare the approaches the authors take.
Research Folders, p. 81
Anticipation/Evidence Guides, p. 82
"If we are going to ask our students to grapple with a text, we'd better be willing to do the same" ~Cheryl Becker Dobbertin
Use your library media specialist and their knowledge!
Remove Supports

Dobbertin supports her take on differentiation through the work of several theorists. In this chapter, she primarily references the work of...
American Library Association
Lev Vygotsky:

It is our job to increase their confidence.
The zone of proximal development (ZPD) has been defined as

"the distance between the actual developmental level as determined by independent problem solving and the level of potential development as determined through problem solving under adult guidance, or in collaboration with more capable peers"
-Begin with supports.
-Slowly remove the "crutches."
-Move toward independence
using activities and learning.
-Start with a "comfort level" to lead
to an instructional level.
Each year, the ALA publishes lists of books, graphic novels, audiobooks and films for young adults.
ask questions
look up additional background information
make notes
Robert Sternberg
Defined 3 "thinking styles."
The Learning Network
"Schoolhouse Smarts"
The New York Times created a free section of their website for educators. It links New York Times articles with novels and poem in interesting ways.
Enjoy Theorizing
"Street Smarts"
Tiered Processing Activities
Goodreads is a website for readers that seems to work on the same principles as Pandora does for music.
Scaffolding to Meet the Needs
-Using a pre-assessment, determine or differentiate students' abilities to meet each ones' needs.
-Determine which students need more scaffolding for better comprehension and "on-level" interventions.
-Students get support, but they are NOT exempt from the work.
-Text and Task must meet each students' needs.
-Independence is the goal

Time Finder
Be Proactive with your time.
Many teacher are "reactive" to how little time they have to plan.
It is encouraged to "find" time "proactively" by finding hidden opportunities to plan activities thoughtfully and without angst.
We, as teachers, must demystify the outcomes of learning for ourselves, and our students. If the students know see straight-forward targets, they will know what is expected of them.

When students know their targets and learning goals, when they reflect on their progress, they and their teacher will be aware of whether the students are making progress or not.
Creating Targets to Match the Assessments
Teaching Josh required Action Planning. The real change will come, not through harder work, but through smarter work; by carefully articulating unit plans that give kids reasons to read; by carefully selecting standards-aligned strategies; differentiating carefully and purposefully; and by reflecting to make the right next choices.
Stages for Long Term Unit Development Planning:
Up Front
(Timing: Well in advance /approaching the teaching of the unit)
1. Envisioning
Purpose: Create a purpose for the lesson that engages students and requires research and reading on the part of the teacher.
Comparing the roles and actions of bullies, bystanders, and heroes
to Roles, people, and events of the Holocaust
Documents Used: Descriptive Unit Plan/ Overview
Carefully planned units with motivating reasons to read & re-read all kinds of texts
Clarity of what reading looked like and was like in his head
Change 'look for the answer' mentality
Essential scaffolds needed to not exempt him from hard work
Stages for Long Term Unit Development Planning:
Up Front Continued
4. Strategizing
Purpose: Determine the needs of your particular students and add and subtract standards or texts as needed. Meeting with colleagues (PLC) to determine how to deeply engage students and calendaring the intended lesson.
Example: Regular Ed. and Sped teachers meet to consider plans in light of the need of their particular students. Collectively the group agreed to develop a case study of a bullying situation that students would study deeply in order to develop generalizations about bullying dynamics. This would serve as a lens for their Holocaust study.
Documents Used: Daily target calendar,
Smart Scaffolding
Lev Vgotsky & Robert Sternberg.
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