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Olivia Lindquist (Egypt)
Transcript of Olivia Lindquist (Egypt)
By: Olivia Lindquist
The Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt
How We Know About the Egyptians
Merchants in Ancient Egypt
Egyptian merchants traded instead of selling. They carried a wide variety of objects. This includes gold, papyrus, linen cloth, and jewelry. When they traded they had a wide variety of objects to choose from. This included cedar and ebony wood, elephant tusks, panther skins, giraffe tails for fly whisks, and animals for the temples and palaces. Egyptian merchants never went past the mouth of the Nile River. They didn't go far from there own civilization, they traveled on the Nile.
I know that the servants of Ancient Egypt would serve the Pharaoh. The servants of the Pharaoh would be faced with death to serve the Pharaoh in the afterlife. Woman servants served girls for royalty or nannies for wealthy children. Sometimes the women would work in the fields. Men also would work in the fields. The Pharaoh's servants would be cooks, butlers, litter carriers, and Pharaoh dressers. The male servants went to the Egyptian army or would build buildings. Servants couldn't own land, but their children were considered peasants.
Most of the population were farmers. Farmers were required to work on irrigation and construction projects. Farmers relied on the cycle of the Nile River. The three stages were Akhet(flooding), Peret(planting), and Shemu(harvesting). Farmers plowed and planted seeds. They planted leeks, grain, garlic, melon, squash, lettuce, and grapes. They used tools like sickles, to harvest their crops, a flail, and a chaff.
The Ancient Egyptian Farming Tools
The Duties of a Servant
The scarab represents eternity in Ancient Egypt. It is a beetle and is mythological. Members of the royal family had their names inscribed into a scarab amulet. The scarab amulet was produced around the 25th or 26th dynasty.
Scribes did the hieroglyphics. Scribes didn't have to pay taxes, join the military, or do any manual labor. ''Most of the children that went to school to learn to become a scribe. The highest level of scribe would be for the pharaoh’s court.The Egyptian title for scribe is sesh which actually translates to to draw''(www.historyforkids.net/egyptian-scribes.html).
The main idea of this passage is hieroglyphics. Hieroglyphics was a form of writing in Ancient Egypt. In the text it talked about the Rosetta Stone. It said that in 1799 they unraveled the mystery of hieroglyphics.
Soldiers in Ancient Egypt
Soldiers in Ancient Egypt took part on patrols and they were trained daily. They protected wells and oases, they also monitored the movement in the caravans(a group of people, especially traders or pilgrims, traveling together across a desert in Asia or North Africa). The soldiers would challenge the vessels along the Nile. The fortresses were the bases for the soldiers.
Most soldiers fought on foot. They carried long spears, slings, daggers, or curved swords. Very few soldiers wore armor, but a lot of the soldiers carried shields. Most of the soldiers carried swords and shields, their only other protection was a linen skirt and a simple headdress. The most popular weapon was a bow and arrow. Foot soldiers had spears, arrows, and short swords. Their armor was hardened leather straps.
Viziers were special advisers. They were in charge of the governors and they made sure that the governors did their jobs. They also made sure that the country was running smoothly. The vizier was the most important person to the pharaoh. They gave reports to the pharaoh on what was happening all over the country. The vizier was often assigned the job of being judge in the place of the pharaoh. The vizier tried to be a fair judge. If your case wasn't serious enough, then you could get into serious trouble from the vizier. The vizier could decide to prove a story, legend, rumor, or myth.
Ancient Egyptian Government
We think that Ancient Egypt was the first country to have a national government. Unlike the U.S, Egypt had inherited leaders. Those leaders are called pharaohs. Pharaohs would rely on advisers to watch over the city or kingdom. There were 42 districts in Ancient Egypt. Each of the districts had a governor, or a nomarch. The governors ran the day to day activities in the districts. In the government, there were different jobs. Those jobs were pharaoh, vizier, and priest. The pharaoh is like the president. He ran the country. The vizier was like a governor. He was the person that reported to the pharaoh. The priests did all of the religious work.
Berenice l was a pharoah in Anient Egypt. She was born
in 340 BCE. She died between 279 BCE and 268 BCE. Her father was Magas and her mother was Antigone. Her spouse was Philip, a Macedonian nobleman. She ruled in the Ptolemaic Dynasty. In 325 BCE, she maried Philip. He was also a Military officer. King Magas of Cyrene was their son. Their two daughters were Antigone and Theoxena.
Darius lll was a pharaoh in Ancient Egypt. He ruled in the 31st dynasty. Darius reigned from 336 BCE to 330 BCE. His father and mother were Arsames of Ostames and Sisygambis. He belonged to the Zoroastrianism religion. He was born in 380 BCE. He died in 330 BCE. He was originally named Artashata and called Codomannus by the Greeks.
Xerxes l Was an Ancient Egyptian Pharaoh. He reigned from 486 BCE to 465 BCE. He was born in the year of 518 BCE. He died in the year of August 465 BCE (aged 53 or 54). His mother and father were Darius I and Atossa. He belonged to the Zoroastrianism religion. His spouses were Amestris, Vashti, and Esther.
ncient Egyptian Gods and Goddesses
The gods and goddesses of Ancient Egypt are the following:
Amun, Anubis, Aten, Atum, Bastet, Bes, Geb, Hapy,Hathor, Horus, Isis, Khepri, Khnum, Ma'at, Nephthys, Nun, Nut, Osiris, Btah, RaRa-Horakhty, Sekhmet, Sesha, SethShu, Sobek, Tawaret, Tefnut. The Ancient Egyptians believed in gods and goddesses just like some Americans believe in God. They worshiped these gods. Different gods and goddesses had different jobs. For example, Anubus was the god of embalming. In the egyptian legend, he helped embalm Osiris after he was killed by Seth. Anubus was the god who whatched over the process of mummifying people when they died. Anubus apeared as a man and a jackal, combined.