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Forms & Functions of Response to Intervention (RtI)
Transcript of Forms & Functions of Response to Intervention (RtI)
1. Effective Instruction
2. Frequent Assessment
3. Immediate Response
4. Collaboration with Home
What is Response to Intervention
Forms & Functions of Response to Intervention (RtI)
Pros & Cons of RtI
Relationship Between RtI & IDEA
Tiers of RtI
Special Education Class
The Forms and Functions of Response to Intervention (RtI)
What is the relationship between IDEA & RtI?
• In 2004, IDEA authorized funding for Response to Intervention (RtI) in the United States.
- The act authorizes that 15% of funds be used in order to provide services to students BEFORE they are identified with a disability.
• Before authorizing funding for RtI, a student had to have a “severe discrepancy” in their intellectual ability in order for a student to be considered as having a specific learning disability (SLD).
-Therefore, a student had to fail before even being referred to special education services.
• Although RtI can be effective, it is lengthy. The reauthorization has left many questions to be researched regarding on how to implement “best practices” in RtI.
By: Ana De La Paz
Specialized instruction for students at risk
Students with intense needs
Children are given the attention needed no matter age or grade level
Easy to administer & doesn't take a long time
Intervenes the child in hopes of keeping the child in the general ed. classroom
Allows teacher to see what interventions have been previously used
Improves their learning rate by twice as much as what it was before RtI.
Expensive to train specialists
Not enough specialists
May lead to schools identifying more learning disabled (LD) students.
Children may miss imp. information as they are pulled out from the gen. ed. classroom.
The National Center on RtI summarizes RtI:
"With RtI, schools identify students at risk for poor learning outcomes, monitor student progress, provide evidence-based interventions and adjust the intensity and nature of those interventions depending on a student's responsiveness, and identify students with learning disabilities or other disabilities." - NCRTI, 2010
RtI Specialist at Hobby E.S
" It allows teachers to see what interventions have been used previously and at what Tier levels" - Ms. Williams
The child is monitored constantly by parents and administrators to see what has been done to help the student.
Teachers don't make use of RtI effectively due to lack of information.
IDEA and RtI
Ardoin,S.P., Witt, C.J., Conell, J.E., & Koenig,J.L. (2005). Application of a three-tiered response to intervention model for instructional planning, decision making, and the identification of children in need of services. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 23, 362-380.
Davis. (2013, October 31). RtI Interview. Interview by N. Kaieda., Houston, TX.
HAUERWAS, L., BROWN, R., & SCOTT, A. N. (2013). Specific Learning Disability and Response to Intervention: State-Level Guidance. Exceptional Children, 80(1), 101-120.
Hoover, J. (n.d.). National Implementation of RTI. NASDSE. Retrieved November 5, 2013, from http://www.nasdse.org/portals/0/nationalimplementationofrti-researchsummary.pdf
Hughes, Charles A., & Dexter, Douglas D. (2011). Response to Intervention: A Research Based Summary. Theory Into Practice, 50:1, 4-11, DOI: 10.1080/00405841.2011.534909
Lenski, S. (2011, December 6). What RTI Means for Content Area Teachers. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 55(4), 276-282. doi:10.1002/JAAL.00034
Lohman, J. (2007, January 17). Response To Intervention Plans. OLR Research Report, R(0067), Retrieved from http://www.cga.ct.gov/2007/rpt/2007-R-0067.htm
McGraw-Hill School Education (Creator). (2013). Response to Intervention (RTI): Core Concepts of RTI [Video file]. Retrieved from (
Mellard, D., McKnight, M., & Jordan, J. (2010, November 29). RTI Tier Structures and Instructional Intensity. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 25(4), 217-225. doi:10.1111/j.1540-5826.2010.00319.x
RtI was developed starting in the late 1970s.
Researchers wanted to find a method of identifying learning disabilities that avoided the discrepancy model.
RtI was recognized in the 2004 reauthorization of the federal Individuals Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) as one option that school districts can use to identify students with disabilities.
De Chaumes Elementary
Special Education Lifeskills teacher
"RtI is a method of academic intervention used to provide early, systematic assistance to children who are having difficulty learning."
De Chaumes Elementary has an RtI team that regularly monitors student progress and has data collection through school wide screening.
National dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities. (2013, August). Response To Intervention (RTI). Retrieved November 15, 2013, from National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities website: http://nichcy.org/schools-administrators/rti
Swerling, L.S. & Cheeseman, E. (2011). Teachers’ knowledge base for implementing response-to-intervention models in reading. Reading and Writing ,25, 1691-172. doi:10.1007/s11145-011-9338-3
Reeves, S., Bishop, J., & Filce, H. (2010). Response to Intervention (RtI) and Tier Systems: Questions Remain as Educators Make Challenging Decisions. Delta Kappa Gamma Bulletin, 76(4), 30-35.
Robins, J., & Antrim, P. (2013, October). Planning For RTI. Knowledge Quest, 42(1), 44-47.
RTI Action Network (Creator). (2012). Implementing Response to Intervention -- Prairie Children Preschool [Video file]. Retrieved from
The IRIS Center for Training Enhancements. (2006). RTI (part 1): An overview. Retrieved on [November 15, 2013,] from
Tuckwiller, E. D., Pullen, P. C., & Coyne, M. D. (2010). The Use of the Regression Discontinuity Design in Tiered Intervention Research: A Pilot Study Exploring Vocabulary Instruction for At-Risk Kindergarteners. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice (Wiley-Blackwell), 25(3), 137-150. doi:10.1111/j.1540-5826.2010.00311.x
Williams, G. (2013, November 8). Interview Survey. Interview by A. De La Paz., Houston , TX.
Implementing Response to Intervention --Prairie Children Preschool
By: RTI Action Network
After all our research and experiences in the field, we realized the RtI plays an important role in many schools. Most of the staff in the schools we visited agreed that RtI is beneficial and effective for the students because it provides students with the services they need and proper placements. However, there are still some flaws in our school system that prevents RtI from reaching its full potential and lack of understanding from instructors.