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Transcript of Vaccinations
Current Federal Laws
No federal laws mandating childhood vaccinations
FDA tests and regulates all available vaccinations
Federal laws do exist for non-citizens who wish to reside in the U.S.
This includes children who are coming into the U.S. for adoption
American troops are required to have a variety of vaccinations
Vaccines depend on areas of deployment
Current State Laws
All 50 states have mandatory vaccinations for children that to go to school
Most have exemptions for medical, religious, or philosophical reasons
Requirements for obtaining a religious exemption from vaccinations vary from state to state
Many states have vaccination requirements for Healthcare Workers
Many states have emergency outbreak laws that allow for mandatory vaccinations
Employer Required Vaccinations
Many employers require their employees to be vaccinated
Especially prevalent in Health Systems
Many require seasonal flu vaccinations as a requirement of employment
Legality of Expanding Federal laws?
There is no precedence for federal vaccination laws for U.S. citizens
Historically, public health is the domain of states and local government
Unlikely a law based on Commerce Clause would stand up in court
A case could be made for federal vaccination laws based on national defense
The 1946 National School Lunch Act
Legality of Expanding State Laws
States are on strong legal footing to further expand vaccination laws
West Virginia does not have a religious or personal exemption
Courts have rejected challenges to this law
Jacobson v. Massachusetts
Upheld a Massachusetts law that gave municipal boards of health the authority to require the vaccination of adults against smallpox
Precedence of required adult vaccination
Who's To Blame...Or Thank?
: thought to have initially propose the idea of vaccines (late 1700's)
Jenner was the first to develop a vaccine, but the idea of vaccination came long before his time
Chinese had records of using this method around the time of 1000 CE
Jenner was the first who
this revolutionary method which transformed the face of infectious diseases
A New Idea
The milk maids who were infected with cowpox showed signs of immunity towards smallpox
Cowpox was similar to smallpox, however much less virulent and potent
In 1796, he took secretions from a milk maid and inserted into an 8 year old boy
After a month, Jenner inserted the little boy again, but this time with smallpox
Due to the boy having cowpox, he was immune to smallpox
Change is a Good Thing
For the next 200 years, the development of more and more vaccinations and the eradication of many viruses changed the lives of millions around the world
Smallpox was eventually eradicated
While some viruses have not been fully eradicated, the introduction of vaccinations help reduce the occurrence of many diseases
Measles, mumps, rubella, and pertussis
20th Century to Modern Day
Common Vaccination Myths
: You’re safe if everyone else is vaccinated
How to get everyone vaccinated?
: Vaccines guarantee protection
Vaccines can't guarantee you won’t get sick
Good preventative measure
: the more people who are vaccinated in the population, the better chances of protecting everyone
: Doctors make money off of them
: Vaccines aren’t necessary because disease has been eradicated
Small pox is only infectious disease that has been eradicated (WHO)
Outbreaks of disease: like measles, mumps, and pertussis
: Too many shots weaken the immune system
"Each dose allows the body to mount an immune response and make defense [antibodies] so the body can fight off a real infection if it showed up." (Dr. Brown, M.D.; American Academy of Pediatrics)
Children given multiple vaccinations at a time: provide as much protection as early as possible
: Vaccines cause autism
In 2004, the Institute of Medicine released a report that found no scientific evidence of a link between the MMR vaccine and autism. In September 2010, the CDC published similar results
: Vaccines are for kids only
There are numerous vaccines that can help keep adolescents and adults, both young and old, healthy.
Flu shot (given to everyone), meningitis (college students), tetanus boosters (adults), etc.
: The HPV shot is for girls only
Cervarix given to only girls
Gardasil can be given to females and males
: Pregnant women can’t get vaccines
Partially true: AAFP says pregnant women should not be given vaccines for varicella (chicken pox) or MMR
Inactivated flu vaccine is safe and recommended
: Natural immunity is better
Infections are more likely than vaccines to trigger lifelong immunity (Dr. Nelson, American Academy of Family Physicians)
Risk of Complications
: Vaccines can have side effects
Most common side effects are soreness at the injection site and fever, which are best treated with acetaminophen or ibuprofen
Always important to weigh costs vs. benefits
Why Should You Get Vaccinated?
Vaccines are safe and could possibly save a patient's life
Ingredients in vaccines are safe in amounts used
Major medical organizations state that vaccines are safe
FDA, IOM (Institute of Medicine), AMA (American Medical Association), AAP (American Academy of Pediatrics), HHS, WHO, etc.
Adverse reactions to vaccines are extremely rare
: vaccines provide protection for the community you live in
Vaccines protect future generations
Vaccines have eradicated smallpox and have nearly eradicated other diseases (polio)
Vaccines provide economic benefits not only society but for your parents/family
Cons of Vaccinations
Vaccines can cause serious and sometimes fatal side effects
Some vaccines contain harmful ingredients
Vaccines contain ingredients some consider immoral or objectionable
Vaccines are unnatural
Most diseases that vaccines target are relatively harmless in many cases, making them unnecessary
Diseases that vaccines target have essentially disappeared
The government should not intervene in personal medical choices
Mandatory vaccines infringe upon constitutionally protected religious freedoms
FDA and CDC should not be trusted to make and regulate safe vaccines
What the Parents Think
Religion, philosophy, freedom and individualism
Controversial and hotly disputed link between immunization and autism
Many believe that the illnesses that vaccines protect against are rare or are not that harmful
Believe that it is a money-making strategy for health professionals
Fears regarding efficacy and safety of vaccines
Vaccines expose kids to toxins like formaldehyde
Believe that preservatives (like Al) in vaccines are dangerous
Fear of adverse reactions and side effects
What the Health Professionals Think
Vaccines are very safe and effective
Been carefully reviewed by scientists, doctors, and healthcare professionals
of getting vaccines are much greater than the possible side effects
Protect others that you care about
Possibility of resurgences of measles and whooping cough because loss of herd immunity
Can save time and money
Can be denied attendance at school or daycare
Meningitis needed for college
Some diseases can result in prolonged disabilities which leads to medical bills, lost time at work, long-term disability care
Usually covered by insurance or there are federally funded programs that provides vaccines at no cost for lower-income families
Solving Medication Related Problems:
Adherence: it is the pharmacist's duty to actively inform the patient of the benefits of being vaccinated and to clear any misconceptions
Additional Therapy: If you get vaccinated, it would save money in the future by preventing the onset of a potential disease
Diseases that used to kill kids in the past have been almost or completely eliminated
Ex. Polio has been eradicated in the USA
What We Suggest
We cannot force parents to get their children vaccinated.
Could damage relationships with their healthcare providers, which would be counterproductive
“Although very vocal, truly anti-vaccine parents are a very small minority.” (Helen Bedford - senior lecturer in children’s health at University College London Institute of Child
For 2012-2013 school year, 1.1% of Kindergartners had non-medical vaccine exemptions (CDC)
We can however educate parents who are hesitant
Addressing the “Vaccine Confidence Gap”
Child vaccinations have come a long way.
Get yourself vaccinated.
There is no precedence for a federal vaccination law for US citizens
It is much better for a parent to want to have their child immunized than forcing them to do so.
By the 1920’s, many schools required vaccinations to children who wanted to attend
In 1986, Congress passed the National Childhood Vaccine Injury Act (NCVIA)
Testing is very thorough and the use of human subjects is used to make certain the safety of the vaccination.
Use of computers, animals and humans to determine success of vaccine; requires FDA approval before marketing
Today, there are many conflicting and misinformed ideas about vaccinations.
History of Vaccinations
Common Vaccination Myths and Misconceptions
Pros and Cons of Being Vaccinated
Perspectives on Vaccinations:
What does the government say?
What do parents think?
What do the health professionals think?
What do we suggest?