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Referencing: In-Text Citations (Heads)
Transcript of Referencing: In-Text Citations (Heads)
citation data in brackets, and include a page number at the end of the quote. Author-Date Systems APA is an Author-Date system, which means you put the author(s) surname(s) and the year next to the relevant information when you use it in the text. Any part of the citation information that is not part of the sentence should go in (brackets). Heads and Tales Paraphrasing When you use your own words to describe or discus the authors' ideas, put the citation information where you mention the authors, or after the information used - do not use a page number. Author's Names in Text If you don't use the authors' names in the sentence, you put them in the brackets (and separate the last two authors with an "&"). Many authors If you have more than three authors, list up to six the first time, then use the first author and et al. from then on. In-text Citations: Some nuts and bolts Referencing Your reference list and in-text citations must match completely - everything you cite has an entry in the reference list, and nothing is in the list unless you have used it in the text. Heads: In-Text Citations Tails: Reference List Jackson (2012) has noted that... ...which has been linked to cancer (Jackson, 2012). EXAMPLES:
Injuries “commonly occur around the home” (Thomson & Barry, 2006, p.6).
Thomson and Barry (2006) note that injuries "commonly occur around the home" (p.6) EXAMPLES:
Injuries often happen in the home (Thomson & Barry, 2006), which indicates...
Thomson and Barry (2006) conducted research that confirmed injuries often happen in the home. About quoting… It is always better to use your own words. It is *your* assignment, and your marker wants to hear your thoughts on the research - not just the research. If you must quote, make sure the quote does not take up a whole sentence - your words should be in every sentence in your assignment. Use direct quotes when you think the exact wording is important. Otherwise, try to answer the question "so what?" and write your own sentence about the information. EXAMPLES:
Thomson and Barry (2006) conducted a study of sixteen emergency departments and noted that...
... as indicated by Thomson and Barry's (2006) study. If you *do* use the authors' names in the sentence, you treat them like normal words ("and" instead of "&") and put the year right next to the names. EXAMPLES:
First time: (Black, Smith, Brown & Jackson, 2012)
Second time: (Black et al., 2006)
First time: Green, Fields and Zacks (2009) state…
Second time: Green et al. (2009) point out... Just like there are two sides to every coin, there are two parts for every citation: The In-text Citations, and the entry in the Reference List. James Cook University Library