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Transcript of Social Reproduction
He "contends that separation of human agency and structural analysis either suppresses the significance of individual autonomy or ignores the structural determinants that lie outside the immediate experience of human actors"
Basically, students are not treated fairly and are being hindered by the schools themselves
We inherent cultural capital that enhance or hurt our success in education
Cultural Capital: social assets that promote social mobility beyond economic means. Examples can include education, intellect, style of speech, dress, or physical appearance.
Book written by Jay MacLeod about his experience in Clarendon Heights, NY
Hallway Hangers vs. Brothers
Brothers - black group of students who aspire to be successful
Hallway Hangers - white group of students who have given up on moving social classes
Both groups end up staying in Clarendon Heights - because of social reproduction
Blames educational expectations
Low expectations for inner-city, low-income youth lead to lower status attainment
“For low SES and disadvantaged minority youth, the corresponding experiences [in school] less consistently point toward college, and so hold down expectations”
There is a gap in achievement with culturally and linguistically diverse students (CLD)
“The racial achievement gap reflects the inequality in educational experience”, which is the cycle of Social Reproduction
“From a policy standpoint, educational practices often have the effect of favoring privileged students and hindering the educational opportunities of students of color”
School characteristics determine students' test scores
Areas of concern:
Availability of resources
Better qualified teachers
Exposure to competitive classmates
There are "similar links to family achievement" in both the lower and upper classes
Policies, administration, and curriculum are all reasons that are cited for perpetuating the cycle of social reproduction
Also, funds are not being allocated to those who need them the most, and this is an institutional and governmental issue that needs to be addressed
Access to better, more qualified teachers has become an issue in urban school areas
Also, many authors agree that teachers need more support by administration in order to learn more about their students that they are teaching
Teachers need more professional development on issues that matter and not on the issues that have already been addressed
Most politicians and administrators think that this problem can be fixed with just money - but it can't
Almost every author I cited says that with more resources needs to be more cultural and family support along with support from administrators
This will take many years to fix if a school district starts making changes to prevent social reproduction
Social Reproduction Theory
By Kelly Reuther
What does the research say?
Henry A. Giroux
Ain't No Makin' It
Framing the Future
Achievement in Culturally Diverse Schools
Effects of Inequality on School
How can we change this?
Is this realistic?
How does it affect students?
Identity and language mismatch
“the mismatch between language used at home and the language demanded by the school is a serious stumbling block for working-class and nonwhite pupils”
Alexander, K., Bozick, R., Dauber, S., Entwisle, D., Kerr, K. (2010). Framing the future: Revisiting the place of educational expectations in status attainment. Social Forces, 88.5.
Bourdieu, P. (1990). The logic of practice. Stanford: Stanford Univ Press.
Chiu, M.M. (2010). Effects of inequality, family and school on mathematics achievement: Country and student differences. Social Forces. 88.4.
Chu, S.Y. (2011). Perspectives in understanding the schooling and achievement of students from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds. Journal of Instructional Psychology. 38.3-4.
Espinoza, A. Personal communication. July 19, 2013.
Giroux, H. (1988). Schooling and the struggle for public life: Critical pedagogy in the modern age. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota.
Giroux, H. (2001). Theory and resistance in education: Towards a pedagogy for the opposition. Westport, CT: Bergin & Garvey.
Giroux, H., & Purpel, D. (1983). The hidden curriculum and moral education: Deception of discovery?. Berkley, CA: McCutchan Publishing Corporation.
Heath, S. B., & McLaughlin, M. W. (1993). Identity and inner-city youth: Beyond ethnicity and gender. New York, NY: Teachers College, Columbia University.
MacLeod, J. (2009). Ain't no makin' it. (3 ed.). Boulder, CO: Westview Press.