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Tunisia - Water Scarcity (World Issues Project)
Transcript of Tunisia - Water Scarcity (World Issues Project)
Christine Gumapac Water Scarcity Levels Where is Tunisia
located? Two Largest Lakes
in Tunisia: Medjerda FACTS: Water Resource
Management Chott el Djerid Most important river system.
Rises in Algeria & drains into the Gulf of Tunis.
Only river that flows continuously. Currently using their water resources in an unstainable manner.
Water scarcity problem is accentuated by the high seasonal and spatial state of the water resources due to climate and consecutive droughts.
Competitions over water can be between neighbouring countries and can involve different parties.
Name 3 countries where Water is
not as scarce as others? Along the coast, temperatures are moderate.
Summer season (May- September) in the NORTH is hot and dry.
In winter months, climate is mild with frequent rains.
Tunis city: 6°C to 14°C in January, and 21°C to 33°C in August.
Rainfall reaches a high of 150 cm in the NORTH.
In the extreme SOUTH, rainfall averages less than 20 cm. Chott el Gharsa Water Resource
Management Water disputes are usually related to development ac tivities (dam construction or transboundary)
Frequent type of competition over water is between upstream & downstream.
Upstream: accused of over using water.
Over use of ground water can deplete springs.
Domestic & Industrial sectors are the most competing sectors w/ the agricultural sector.
PREDICTION: Tunisia and Algeria may come into conflict in the future.
Due to the Merdjerda River that they share; which is Tunisia's main source of water. .
CONFLICTS: Irrigation is the largest consumer of water.
80 percent of the total water is needed for farming; if these 2 countries decide to go to war, the water needed may deplete.
Leads to agricultural & products to decline -> lose $$ and business.
Another Issue: Wastewater (construction) - will effect for 80 percent of the rural population. CONFLICTS: Various water users in Tunisia will become more acute in the future if there are problems w/ Algeria.
There will be pressure on the agricultural irrigation sector to transfer water to the urban -> industrial -> tourist sectors.
. . . However, Sharing the Medjerda river won't be a tremendous issues in the future....
BUT just in case, there are some
soltuions that can fix this potential
problem. RESOLUTIONS: Can create a treaty to specify how the Medjerda River is split up
Improving the efficiency of water use & encouraging conservation through technologies.
Long term action plan (estimates water 20 yrs in advance) VIDEO: http://vimeo.com/29004382 Tunisia has required several successive reforms,
whose objectives were:
To encourage the valuation of water resources and to fight against all types of waste and corruption created by pricing systems adapted to the drinking water and irrigation sectors
To develop a program of water conservation in the drinking water and irrigation sectors by monitoring and controlling consumption
To encourage the participation of users in the management of collectives to control and improve efficiency
To give value to non-conventional water resources by reuse of treated wastewaters in agriculture and desalination of briny waters for drinking water needs.
To protect the quality of the resources against pollution using a widespread purification program
To adopt water and soil conservation programs to reduce erosion and to increase aquifer recharge Desalination: