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Language Development

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Samantha Neahring

on 12 February 2015

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Transcript of Language Development

Constructivism
Socioculturalism
Theory by Lev Vygotsky
Behaviorism
Nativism
Theory formed by Noam Chomsky
Oral, Written, and Print
Language Acquisition
"While some mental processes are measurable, it is virtually impossible to adequately establish what determines how an individual perceives, remembers, thinks, or solves problems."
Language acquisition
is the process by which humans acquire the capacity to perceive and comprehend language, as well as to produce and use words and sentences to communicate.
What is Language Acquisition/
Language Development?
Resources:
Cognitive Psychology. (2015).
Language Acquisition.
Retrieved from http://www.psychologistworld.com/cognitive/psycho-linguistics/language-acquisition.php

Costley, K.C. (2013). Avram Noam Chomsky and His Cognitive Development Theory.
ERIC.
Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED543301.pdf.

Costley, K.C. (2012). An Overview of the Life, Central Concepts, Including Classroom Applications of Lev Vygotsky.
ERIC.
Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED529565.pdf

"Language Acquisition." (2015). Retrieved from Google.com.

Letemyinen, H. (2012).
Language Acquisition.
Retrieved from simplypsychology.org.

"Psycholinguistics." (2015). Retrieved from Google.com.

Tompkins, G.E. (2014).
Literacy for the 21st Century: A Balanced Approach.
Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.

Tronolone, C, "Quine: Terms in translation. Noam Chomsky / Universal Grammar." Retrieved from rit.edu.


Constructivist Theory

Nativist Theory

Socioculturalist Theory

Behaviorist Theory
Psycholinguistics
- psychology of language; the study of the psychological and neurobiological factors that enable humans to acquire, use, comprehend and produce language.

Proposed the theory of
Universal Grammar
- Idea that learners are innately posses a cognitive sense of language and ability to form grammar patterns
- Recognizes children require a lot of literacy training to learn to read and write

"Spoken language can be broken down into phonology, syntax, semantics, morphology, and pragmatics."

Children naturally acquire first words by forming meaning between word and common objects.
- The word "cat" has no meaning until the child associates "cat" with an actual cat
- When word recognition occurs, children learn more vocabulary, and then develop the ability to use them

Children learn language conventions through interactions with "experienced users," namely adults in that culture.


Brain = partially programmed machine
(ready to be configured)

Encounters with the perceived world
Configuration of machine
Corresponding language pattern forms
Theory formed by Jean Piaget
Explained that learning is the modification of schemas as students actively interact with their environment

Schema Theory:
-
Assimilation
- combine new information with existing knowledge, alter existing schema
-
Accommodation
- new information conflicts with existing knowledge, create new schema; cannot assimilate

Stages of Intellectual Development:
Sensorimotor (0-2): understanding of environment
Preoperational (2-7): understanding of symbols
Concrete-Operational (7-11): mental tasks and language use
Formal-Operational (11-up): abstraction


Students can only learn things when they are developmentally ready..
Development Learning

- Need to meet
zone of proximal development
Theory formed by BF Skinner
Believed adults foster children's learning and development intentionally and systematically; most learning fostered by environment

Children develop language mainly through social interaction
- Everything they learn is
influenced by social and cultural norms

Meaning is conveyed through language:
Informal Conversation
- discussion and dialogue
Formal Schooling
- spoken or written in mathematic symbols, art, music, literature, etc.

As children develop, they begin internalizing processes they use in social interactions and then use them independently.
Internalization
- process of consolidating and embedding one's own beliefs, attitudes, and values through social or cultural interactions
Appropriation
- process of internalizing but also adapting the ideas and strategies of one's culture for one's own use

*Challenging tasks promote maximum cognitive growth.
Zone of Proximal Development
- level between their actual development and their potential development (p. 8)
Believes language development is a result of a set of habits; learners have no built-in knowledge; learning is the product of
stimulus-response experiences
- Students can learn to read by learning series of discrete skills and subskills (Tompkins p. 6)

Information is presented in small steps (Tompkins p. 7)
- Reinforced through practice activities until mastered
- Each step builds on previous step
- Planned, sequential order

Students typically work individually, not in small groups or with partners

Behaviorists believe teachers control and motivate students through a combination of
rewards and punishments
Language Experience Approach
- Teachers do shared writing:
- Students dictate writing about their own experiences
- Teacher writes what students say
- Developed text becomes reading material for students
- Students involved in both reading and writing processes
- Easy to read...
- Familiar language
- Based on students' experiences
How can we
use this in the classroom?
Analogy:
Consider Literacy Development
Emergent Reading & Writing:
Beginning Reading & Writing:
- Develop an interest in reading and writing
- Acquire concepts about print
- Develop book-handling skills
- Learn to identify letters of the alphabet
- Develop handwriting skills
- Learn to read and write some high-frequency words
- Learn phonics skills
- Recognize 100 high-frequency words
- Apply reading strategies, including cross-checking, predicting, and repairing
- Write five or more sentences, sometimes organized into a paragraph
- Spell phonetically
- Spell 50 high-frequency words
- Use capital letters to begin sentences
- Use punctuation marks to indicate ends of sentences
- Reread their writing
Consider Literacy Development
(continued)
Fluent Reading & Writing:
- Read fluently and with expression
- Recognize most one-syllable words automatically and can decode other words efficiently
- Use decoding and comprehension strategies effectively
- Write well-developed, multiparagraph compositions
- Use the writing process to draft and refine their writing
- Write stories, reports, letters, and other genres
- Spell most high-frequency and other one-syllable words correctly
- Use capital letters and punctuation marks correctly most of the time
*Tompkins p. 115-125
*Tompkins p.
The Four Cueing Systems
Phonological
Syntactic
Semantic
Pragmatic
Phoneme
(smallest unit of sound)

Grapheme
(written representation of phoneme)

Phonological Awareness
(knowledge about sound structure of words)

Phonemic Awareness
(ability to orally manipulate phonemes in words)

Phonics
(instruction about phoneme-grapheme correspondences and spelling rules)
Syntax
(structure or grammar of sentence)

Morpheme
(smallest meaningful unit of language)


Free Morpheme
(morpheme that can stand alone as a word)


Bound Morpheme
(morpheme that must be attached to free morpheme)
Semantics
(meaning)

Synonyms
(words that mean same or nearly same thing)

Antonyms
(opposites)

Homonyms
(words that sound alike but are spelled differently)
Function
(purpose for which a person uses language)

Standard English
(form of English used in textbooks and by television newscasters)

Nonstandard English
(other forms of English)
*Tompkins p. 13
Classroom Applications
Balanced literacy approach



Scaffold literacy instruction
Literacy centers
Inquiry learning
Appeal to student interests
Teach the alphabet
Purposes of print
Big books
Practice Handwriting
Modeled, Shared, Guided, Interactive, Independent,
Reading, phonics, vocabulary, comprehension, literature, spelling
Oral, visual, and written language
Content-areas
Powerful multicultural literature
Multiple mediums of print
Language experience approach
Grand conversations
*As teachers, we need to foster an interest in reading and writing.
Implications
We have a lot to be aware of.

All students will begin school at different levels.
Students will be exposed to different types of print before schooling.
Students are forming language based on many different sources.
Students come from different backgrounds and have different interests, making it hard to appeal to all at once.
We must create authentic, meaningful experiences with language.
Students need concrete experiences.
Students need social experiences in school.
We can approach language with many different theories, but should use a combination of these theories.
We can never over-balance our literacy instruction.
Students need frequent feedback.
We should always be reflecting on students' and our own progress.
*Costley 2013
*Tronolone
*Costley 2012
by Madi Limbrick
& Sam Neahring

*Costley 2013
Perception = to be aware
Comprehension = to understand
*Google 2015
Language Acquisition "House"
What does language development sound like?
http://www.ted.com/talks/deb_roy_the_birth_of_a_word?language=en#t-361639
Full transcript