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Transcript of Technology PUSH/PULL.....
The idea of PUSH.
is the concept that new products exist because new inventions, new ideas or advancements in material's technology have allowed or given designers ideas for new products. Products that could NOT have existed before the introduction of the new inventions or developments in technology.
Example of Technology
can create products that consumers, and society in general, did not realise is needed or wanted.
Some of these new innovative products can completely change society.....such as the internet.
Can you imagine a World without the internet? Did people want or need the internet and then it was developed in response to that need.....or did the internet come about as a result of new technology and society discovered the need..... a need it formerly never had or wanted.
But, is the internet all good?
Classic example of Technology Push success.
Designed in 1979 and manufactured in 1980.
Before the Walkman people did not listen to music whilst moving around.....walking, cycling, commuting.
Using innovative new technology that allowed headphones to become smaller and lighter, but still emit good quality sound, Sony's R&D (research and development) laboratory developed the small, music playing device called a personal stereo:The Sony Walkman.
This invention changed the way humans listened to music forever. Did people want to listen to music on the go? Did people need to listen to music as they moved around.? The ability to do so before the Walkman was very limited.
the product onto society.
This model describes how new products emerge because of a
from society or a specific type of consumer.
Detailed analysis of market research can identify what new needs exist, how existing products might meet these needs or be improved.
Inventors or product champions, such as Steve Jobs, might understand or intuitively know what we, as consumers, want.....before we even realise it ourselves. Who knew we all wanted tablet computers.....but we do. Sales of tablet computers have overtaken traditional PC's.
Or.....how new inventions, new types of materials and new technologies change existing products and create completely new ones.
Research and science creates new invention.
Design and development of new product.
First model Sony Walkman 1980.
Market need drives invention.
Design and development.
thinking good, focused and smart market research should identify the possibility of creating a successful new product that fulfills consumer need. However the
concept has critics because whilst it may be true that consumers are very good at finding faults in products, and will voice a demand for improvements, they may not be able to ask for products that do not exist. Products that are completely revolutionary in concept. Products that they may not even know that they need.
"If I had asked people what they wanted, they would have said faster horses."
Henry Ford, entrepreneur creator of the Model T, said:
It's really hard to design products by focus groups. A lot of times, people don't know what they want until you show it to them.
Steve Jobs quote.
Other than the push/pull model of product development there is another idea: coupling.
is about joining, but balancing, technology and market considerations.
of market needs and and state of the art emerging technology is vital in all stages of the product design process.
"I'm convinced that about half of what separates the successful entrepreneurs from the non-successful ones is pure perseverance. It is so hard."
Steve Jobs quote.
Developments in new materials and new technologies effect
the design and manufacture of products.
To understand this process we shall look at the development of the mobile phone.
Mobile phones have changed rapidly over the last decade due designers and manufacturers utilising technological advances in materials, software, computer hardware and manufacturing methods.
Designers and engineers have responded to consumer demands, as their needs and wants have grown when using phones: people want their phone to do
. The development of mobile phone technology is very dynamic and innovative.
"If I had asked people what they wanted, they would have said faster horses".
Steve Jobs technology visionary and product champion of Apple.
Above: early attempt at mobile communication with radio equipment: 1924, USA.
Rapid development driven by demand.
It is 40 years since the first public mobile phone call. On 3 April, 1973, Martin Cooper, a pioneering inventor working for Motorola in New York, called a rival engineer from the pavement of Sixth Avenue to brag and was met with a stunned, defeated silence. The race to make the first portable phone had been won.
Many people at Motorola, however, felt mobile phones would never be a mass-market consumer product. They wanted the firm to focus on business carphones. But Cooper and his team persisted. Ten years after that first boastful phonecall they brought the portable phone to market, at a retail price of around $4,000.
First Mobile phone: DynaTac.
Motorola DynaTAC 8000x was sold as the first commercial handheld cellular phone in 1983. It weighed 1.75 lb., stood 13 in. high, stored 30 numbers, took 10 hours to recharge and cost $3,995.
The UK's first public mobile phone call was made by comedian Ernie Wise in 1985 from St Katharine dock to the Vodafone head offices over a curry house in Newbury.
Vodafone's 1985 monopoly of the UK mobile market lasted just nine days before Cellnet (now O2) launched its rival service.
Cellnet and Vodafone were the only UK mobile providers until 1993.
It took Vodafone just less than nine years to reach the one million customers mark. They reached two million just 18 months later.
Thirty years on, the number of mobile phone subscribers worldwide is estimated at six and a half billion. And Angry Birds games have been downloaded 1.7bn times.
phone in the UK was sent in 1992 by engineer Neil Papworth to his friend Richard Jarvis's Orbitel 901 handset. It read simply "Merry Christmas", which was a bit early, since it was sent on 3 December.
Above: The first smartphone was IBM's Simon, which debuted at the Wireless World Conference in 1993. It had an early LCD touchscreen and also functioned as an email device, electronic pager, calendar, address book and calculator.
Mobile phone facts.
Invention of the camera phone.....by a cabinet maker from Paris.
The first camera phone was created by French entrepreneur
. He took the first photograph with a mobile phone, of his newborn daughter Sophie, on 11 June, 1997.
More mobile/cell phone facts.....
1.7bn mobiles were sold in 2012. The three largest sellers were Samsung, Nokia and Apple handsets. Combined sales of the three were 850m.
First SMS message sent to a phone in the UK was sent in 1992 by engineer Neil Papworth to his friend Richard Jarvis's Orbitel 901 handset. It read simply "Merry Christmas", which was a bit early, since it was sent on 3 December.
The biggest-selling handset of all time was the dirt-cheap Nokia 1100, launched in 2003, with over 250m sales.
By 2016, annual mobile phone sales are expected to rise to around
Nokia 1100, sold over 250m units.
How have cell phones developed from the Motorola DynaTac in 1983..... to the Apple iphone in 2007.
The dramatic improvements seen in the the iphone is due to advances in material's technology. New materials and the ability to manufacture them with accuracy and quality has enhanced the iphone and other modern smartphones.....
Materials such as machined aluminium using computer controlled CNC machines.
Above video explains how Apple use aluminium in their products.....whilst the film discusses the Mac-book its methods hold true for the iphone.
Haptic technology, or haptics, is a tactile feedback technology which takes advantage of the sense of touch by applying forces, vibrations, or motions to the user. This is used on mobile phone touchscreens.
Micro electronics have turned the phone's function from a device that was primarily designed to make phone calls to what is now, effectively a computer. Smartphones now are more powerful than many desktop computers were 5 years ago.
All this is due to advances in manufacturing technology of the chips used to power the 'brains' of the phone.
Research shows that smartphone users spend an average of 12 minutes a day on phonecalls. They spend more time playing games (14 minutes), listening to
(16 minutes), using social media (17 minutes) and browsing online (25 minutes). The most common use of all mobiles is to check the time.
Using the smartphone to search the internet.
Leaps in mobile communication technology mean that wireless communication such as 4G and the upcoming 5G means that Smartphones be used for applications that were never predicted or envisioned back in the 1980's when use of mobile phones first began.....
5G: several hundred times faster than 4G it can transmit data at 1.05 Gigabits per second. Giving one the capability to download a HD movie in seconds.....or stream one on the go.
The computing power of smartphones, combined with the connectivity of the internet has created a brand new industry: the creation of apps.
installed on a smartphone for many, many needs has become very prolific over the last 7 years ever since the first iphone appeared.
It has led to a boom industry for creative, innovative software developers. An industry that is worth billions of dollars.
Text and info concerning the history of mobile phones from the article: Forty mobile phone facts: cellphones for dogs, 'butt-dialling' and Ernie Wise.
By Guardian writer Tom Meltzer.
Trends in the world of mobile phones.....
Mobile phones are getting smarter, faster, lighter, tougher.....some trends appearing are: Phonebloks.
Mobile phone photography.....
Was it possible to predict that mobile phones would be the principal device used by people to take photos. Phones equipped with cameras have meant that camera sales have dropped dramatically. The ability to upload photos instantly onto the internet has also meant instantaneous access to global news events.
Twitter use on phones helped people mobilise and stay ahead of authoritarian regimes during the recent Arab Spring uprisings against repressive regimes.
Rioters used Blackberry Messenger to avoid police cordons and arrest. The mobile phone has changed society.
Above: Hackney Riots, 2011.
How the cell phone can topple governments and speed a revolution.....
Manufacturing a smartphone.
Apple are so secretive about their manufacturing processes that occur mainly in China at Foxconn factories.....so film of their manufacture is not to be found. Therefore, on this slide, is a film of making the Nokia N9 smartphone in Finland. The extremely complex and high-tech process is glimpsed in the film.
Camera lenses for phones.....
Smartphone as fashion accessory.....
Above Tokyo street style phone. 2013.
Above: $302,985 World’s Most Expensive iPhone 5 case by UUnique London
Above "blinged" case at Republican Convention USA 2012.
(actually this year.....)
Flexible OLEDS. Advances in manufacturing techniques have led to the production of OLEDS, which is electronic micro circuits and LED's on a tough plastic (polymer) substrate (base).
This will change the design, look, ability and function of all electronic goods.....forever.