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Muscle Revision Guide
Transcript of Muscle Revision Guide
types of muscles
how muscles work
Muscle categories and jobs
Muscle Categories (back)
Fast and Slow twitch fibres
Muscles work by
muscles can only pull
, they are often
found in pairs
- so as
one muscle contracts
, the other relaxes. This is working
. An example of a pair of muscles are
is the muscle that
and pulling on the bone.
As the name suggests, they are only found in the heart. A cardiac muscle helps to pump blood around the body and works automatically.
smooth/ involuntary muscles
These are found in the gut and the blood vessels. They work automatically, like the cardiac muscles, but can also stretch if required.
These need to be told to work by the brain through nerves. The are attached to the skeleton and help to make the body's shape and movement.
This shows a very simple animation of biceps and triceps contracting and relaxing.
Types of muscle contraction
The muscles stay the same length and the bones don't move
A rugby scrum is an example of isometric contractions.
This is basically the opposite of isometric contractions. In isotonic contractions, muscle fibres change length and the bones move.
The muscle fibres get shorter.
examples: press ups and bicep curls
The muscle fibres lengthen under tension. This is a less common contraction, though examples include
kicking a football
Allow you to stand on tiptoes, as they create extension at the ankles. They are useful for sprint starts in a race.
Create leg extension at the knee. Useful for squats.
Allow the torso to flex. Useful for sit ups.
Cause flexion at the elbow. Useful for chin ups.
Create abduction at the shoulder so you can move your arm sideways. Useful for swimming.
Pectorals create adduction at the shoulder across the chest. Useful fro press-ups.
Allows rotation of shoulders. Useful for bowling in cricket.
Creates extension at the elbow. Useful for throwing.
Allow flexion of the leg at the knee. Useful for sprinting.
Allow adduction at the shoulder behind your back.
Allow extension, abduction and adduction at the hip. Useful for jumping.
Fast twitch fibres
. They are
and thick fibres
that are brilliant for
react and work fast
. However, they get
, so are
Slow twitch fibres
and are excellent for
as they work at a
. They are
longer, thinner fibres
. They are
not as explosive
in terms of power as the fast twitch fibres, but can
athletes would require good slow twitch fibres for most of their race.
By Catherine Flack