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Muscle Revision Guide

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by

cat F

on 22 September 2013

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Transcript of Muscle Revision Guide

revision guide
MUSCLES
types of muscles
how muscles work
main muscles
Muscle categories and jobs
Muscle Categories (back)
Fast and Slow twitch fibres
cardiac
Muscles work by
contracting
and
relaxing
. As
muscles can only pull
, they are often
found in pairs
- so as
one muscle contracts
, the other relaxes. This is working
antagonistically
. An example of a pair of muscles are
biceps
and
triceps
.

An
agonist
is the muscle that
is contracting
and pulling on the bone.

The
antagonist
is the
relaxing muscle.
Deltoids
As the name suggests, they are only found in the heart. A cardiac muscle helps to pump blood around the body and works automatically.
smooth/ involuntary muscles
These are found in the gut and the blood vessels. They work automatically, like the cardiac muscles, but can also stretch if required.
Voluntary
These need to be told to work by the brain through nerves. The are attached to the skeleton and help to make the body's shape and movement.
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3ABicep_tricep.gif
This shows a very simple animation of biceps and triceps contracting and relaxing.
Types of muscle contraction
Isometric Contractions
Isotonic Contraction
Concentric Contraction
Eccentric Contractions
The muscles stay the same length and the bones don't move
A rugby scrum is an example of isometric contractions.
This is basically the opposite of isometric contractions. In isotonic contractions, muscle fibres change length and the bones move.
The muscle fibres get shorter.
examples: press ups and bicep curls
The muscle fibres lengthen under tension. This is a less common contraction, though examples include
kicking a football
Pectorals
Biceps
Abdominals
Quadriceps
Hamstrings
Gastrocnemius
Gluteals
Latissimus
Triceps
Trapezius
Allow you to stand on tiptoes, as they create extension at the ankles. They are useful for sprint starts in a race.
Create leg extension at the knee. Useful for squats.
Allow the torso to flex. Useful for sit ups.
Cause flexion at the elbow. Useful for chin ups.
Create abduction at the shoulder so you can move your arm sideways. Useful for swimming.
Pectorals create adduction at the shoulder across the chest. Useful fro press-ups.
Allows rotation of shoulders. Useful for bowling in cricket.
Creates extension at the elbow. Useful for throwing.
Allow flexion of the leg at the knee. Useful for sprinting.
Allow adduction at the shoulder behind your back.
Allow extension, abduction and adduction at the hip. Useful for jumping.
Fast twitch fibres
contract and

work quickly
. They are
short

and thick fibres
that are brilliant for
sprinting
because they
react and work fast
. However, they get
tired very

quickly
, so are
not suitable
for
endurance events
.
Slow twitch fibres
work slowly
and are excellent for
endurance events
as they work at a
steady pace
. They are
longer, thinner fibres
that
contract slowly
. They are
not as explosive
in terms of power as the fast twitch fibres, but can
last for

much longer
.
Marathon
athletes would require good slow twitch fibres for most of their race.
By Catherine Flack
Full transcript