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Transcript of Marianas Trench
It's the deepest spot in any ocean of the world. It is located in the Pacific Ocean, just east of the Phillippines.
Nearby is the island of Guam, a U.S. Territory inhabited by natives identified as Chamorros. The Marianas Trench's depth is about 10,924 m, or almost 11 km (7 miles). Plate Tectonics is a description of the surface of the earth. The interior of the earth, called the mantle, is hot, molten lava. The solid crust, which is in pieces, floats on this magma
As hot magma rises through cracks in the crust, it pushes the pieces of crust apart. In other places, pieces of crust are forced together, where they buckle to form mountains.
The oceanic crust is much heavier than the continental crust, so when these plates crash into each other, the oceanic plate plunges downward toward the molten mantle, while the lighter, continental plate rides up over the top. The forces driving the two plates together are really intense, so the underlying oceanic plate (the 'subducted' plate) creates a trench where it drags the edge of the continental crust down as it descends underneath. The Phillippines Subduction also results in the formation of volcanoes. Over millions of years, the erupted lava and volcanic debris from the escaping magma pile up on the ocean floor, until a submarine volcano rises above sea-level to form an island volcano. The Phillippines, the Marianas Islands are examples of this. Volcano Mariana Trench is part of the Izu-Bonin-Mariana Arc covergent boundary. This boundary has the Pacific plate subducted beneath Mariana Plate. Since the Pacific Plate is the largest of all tectonic plates on Earth, crust material has had at least 170 million yearrs to become dense beneath Marianas Plate. The movement of the plates and the volcanism caused by the subductes water trapped in minerals are responsable for the formation of Marianas Islands Life in Mariana's Trench (known) The expedition conducted in 1960 observed (with great surprise because of the high pressure) at the bottom large living creatures such as a sole or flounder about 30 cm (1 ft) long, and a shrimp. Many marine biologists later researched and suggested that maybe was a sea cucumber.
In July 2011 a research expedition sent landers, called dropcams, equipped with digital video and lights to explore this region of the deep sea. Amongst many other living organisms, some gigantic single-celled amoebas with a size of more than 4 inches (10 centimeters), belonging to the class of xenophyophores were observed. Xenophyophores are noteworthy for their size, their extreme abundance on the seafloor and their role as hosts for a variety of organisms. ocean landers xenophyophores The Mariana Islands were claimed by Spain in 1668. Spain established a colony there, and gave the islands the official title of Las Marianas in honor of Spanish Queen Mariana of Austria Marianas Island The trench was first sounded during the Challenger expedition (December 1872 – May 1876) In 1957, the Soviet vessel Vityaz reported a depth of 11,034 m In 1962, the surface ship M.V. Spencer F. Baird recorded a maximum depth of 10,915 m In 1984, the Japanese survey vessel Takuyo measured 10,924m. KAIKO reached the deepest area of Mariana trench and made the deepest diving record of 10,911 m on March 24th 1995. 1997 and 2001, a spot was found along the Mariana Trench that had depth similar to that of the Challenger Deep, possibly even deeper. On 1 June 2009 sonar mapping of the Challenger Deep by the Simrad EM120 sonar 2011, it was announced at the American Geophysical Union mapped the trench. Mapping revealed the existence of four rocky outcrops thought to be former seamounts. measurements