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Copy of Copy of Dokumentaryong Pampelikula

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jemiemah devera

on 28 February 2014

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Transcript of Copy of Copy of Dokumentaryong Pampelikula

"Taos-puso kong tinatanggap ang iyong mga ipinayo"
"Ikinalulungkot ko,
tahasan akong
sumasalungat sa iyong mga pahayag."
1.Anu-ano ang iba't ibang komunikatibong pahayag o mga uri ng pagpapahayag?
2. Magbigay ng halimbawa ng pangungusap sa bawat uri.
"Bahala na kayo sa anumang hakbang ang nais ninyong isagawa."
"Talagang sumasang-ayon ako sa iyong mga suhestiyon"
"Maaari kayang mangyari ang kanyang hinala?"
"Sayang, tama na sana ang aking
"Mag-ingat ka sa lahat ng iyong mga lakad"
Binabati ko kayo!
Inihanda ni:
Gurong Nagsasanay sa Filipino 8

Tama! Ang Komunikatibong Paggamit ng mga pahayag ay isa sa mga mahahalagang
aspeto ng
Dokumentaryong Pampelikula.

Mahilig ka bang manood ng PELIKULA?
Ano ang nais bigyan tuon ng mga larawan mula sa mga eksena sa dokumentaryong pampelikulang Manoro (Ang Guro) ?

Alam mo bang ang Komunikatibong Paggamit ng mga Pahayag ay isa sa mahahalagang aspeto ng Dokumentaryong Pampelikula?
Sa Pamamagitan din nito, higit nating nauunawaan ang nais ipahiwatig ng mga tauhan sa paraan ng kanyang pananalita.
Gamit ang Komunikatibong Paggamit ng mga pahayag o mga Uri ng mga Pagpapahayag, naiintindihan ng mga manonood ang damdamin ng mga tauhan.
Mga Iba't ibang Uri ng Pagpapahayag

Hindi pagpayag

Kayo ay mahahati sa tatlong grupo. Bawat miyembro ay magkakaroon ng numero. Bubunot ang guro ng numero na siyang mababasa ng pahayag na kanyang bubunutin. Babasahin ito ng may Emosyon. Matapos itong basahin, sasabihin niya kung anong uri ito ng pagpapahayag.
Basahin at Unawain ang Unang
Kabanata ng Florante at Laura.
Paramihan ng sagot ang
Larong ito. Ang Grupong may pinakamaraming puntos ay siyang makakatanggap ng...
Radioisotopes in Enviroment

CT, sometimes called CAT (Computerised Axial Tomography) scan,
uses special X-ray equipment to obtain image data from hundreds of different angles around, or ‘slices’
through, the body. The information is then processed to show a 3-D cross-section of body tissues and
organs. Since they provide views of the body slice by slice, CT scans provide much more comprehensive
information than conventional X-rays. CT imaging is particularly useful because it can show several types of
tissue – lung, bone, soft tissue and blood vessels – with greater clarity than flat X-ray images.]

Where a weld has been made, special film is taped over the weld around the outside of the pipe. A machine called a “pipe crawler” carries a shielded radioactive source down the inside of the pipe to the position of the weld. There, the radioactive source is remotely exposed and a radiographic image of the weld is produced on the film. This film is later developed and examined for signs of flaws in the weld.

An advantage using gamma radiography is that no power is required and thus eliminates the need of x-ray sets, which require power to operate which may not be readily available at a remote site.

Radioisotopes in Industry


Water Resource Management
• radioisotopes are used to trace the origin of ground water and measure the rate of groundwater replenishment.

Molybdenum-99 (66 h): Used as the 'parent' in a generator to produce technetium-99m.

Technetium-99m (6 h): Used in to image the skeleton and heart muscle in particular, but also for brain, thyroid, lungs (perfusion and ventilation), liver, spleen, kidney (structure and filtration rate), gall bladder, bone marrow, salivary and lacrimal glands, heart blood pool, infection and numerous specialised medical studies.

Bismuth-213 (46 min): Used for TAT.

Chromium-51 (28 d): Used to label red blood cells and quantify gastro-intestinal protein loss.

Cobalt-60 (10.5 mth): Formerly used for external beam radiotherapy.

Copper-64 (13 h): Used to study genetic diseases affecting copper metabolism, such as Wilson's and Menke's diseases.

Dysprosium-165 (2 h): Used as an aggregated hydroxide for synovectomy treatment of arthritis.

Erbium-169 (9.4 d): Use for relieving arthritis pain in synovial joints.

Holmium-166 (26 h): Being developed for diagnosis and treatment of liver tumours.


It is very easy to detect the presence or absence of some radioactive materials even when they exist in very low concentrations. Radioisotopes can therefore be used to label molecules of biological samples in vitro (out of the body). Pathologists have devised hundreds of tests to determine the constituents of blood, serum, urine, hormones, antigens and many drugs by means of associated radioisotopes. These procedures are known as radioimmuno assays and, although the biochemistry is complex, kits manufactured for laboratory use are very easy to use and give accurate results.


A new field is Targeted Alpha Therapy (TAT), especially for the control of dispersed cancers. The short range of very energetic alpha emissions in tissue means that a large fraction of that radiative energy goes into the targeted cancer cells, once a carrier has taken the alpha-emitting radionuclide to exactly the right place. Laboratory studies are encouraging and clinical trials for leukaemia, cystic glioma and melanoma are under way.

An experimental development of this is Boron Neutron Capture Therapy using boron-10 which concentrates in malignant brain tumours. The patient is then irradiated with thermal neutrons which are strongly absorbed by the boron, producing high-energy alpha particles which kill the cancer. This requires the patient to be brought to a nuclear reactor, rather than the radioisotopes being taken to the patient.

X-ray technology lets doctors see straight
through human tissue to examine broken bones,
cavities and swallowed objects with extraordinary ease. Modified X-ray procedures can be used to examine
softer tissue, such as lungs, blood vessels or intestines. During an X-ray, a camera records the pattern of
X-ray radiation that passes through the patient’s body. A conventional X-ray image is basically a shadow – a
piece of film on the other side of the X-ray source registers the bones’ silhouette.

Rapidly dividing cells are particularly sensitive to damage by radiation. For this reason, some cancerous growths can be controlled or eliminated by irradiating the area containing the growth.
External irradiation (sometimes called teletherapy) can be carried out using a gamma beam from a radioactive cobalt-60 source, though in developed countries the much more versatile linear accelerators are now being utilised as a high-energy x-ray source (gamma and X-rays are much the same). An external radiation procedure is known as the gamma knife radiosurgery, and involves focusing gamma radiation from 201 sources of cobalt-60 sources on a precise area of the brain with a cancerous tumour. Worldwide, over 30,000 patients are treated annually, generally as outpatients.

Radionuclide therapy (RNT)

Diagnostic techniques in nuclear medicine use radioactive tracers which emit gamma rays from within the body. These tracers are generally short-lived isotopes linked to chemical compounds which permit specific physiological processes to be scrutinized. They can be given by injection, inhalation or orally. The first type are where single photons are detected by a gamma camera which can view organs from many different angles. The camera builds up an image from the points from which radiation is emitted; this image is enhanced by a computer and viewed by a physician on a monitor for indications of abnormal conditions.

Diagnostic techniques in nuclear medicine

Nuclear medicine uses radiation to provide diagnostic information about the functioning of a person's specific organs, or to treat them. Diagnostic procedures are now routine.
Radiotherapy can be used to treat some medical conditions, especially cancer, using radiation to weaken or destroy particular targeted cells.
Tens of millions of nuclear medicine procedures are performed each year, and demand for radioisotopes is increasing rapidly.

Radioisotopes in Medicine

Radioisotopes in Medicine

Caesium-137: Used for radiotracer technique for identification of sources of soil erosion and deposition
Silver-110m, Cobalt-60, Lanthanum-140, Scandium-46, Gold-198: Used together in blast furnaces to determine
resident times and to quantify yields to measure the furnace performance
Cobalt-60: used for gamma sterilization
Gold-198: Used to trace factory waste causing ocean pollution, and to trace sand movement in river beds and ocean floors
Gold-198 & Technetium-99m: Used to study sewage and liquid waste movements
Zinc-65 & Manganese-54: Used to predict the behavior of heavy metal components in effluents from mining waste water
Iridium-192, Gold-198 & Chromium57: Used to label sand to study coastal erosion

Artificially produced radioisotopes:

Naturally occurring radioisotopes:

Chlorine-36: Used to measure sources of chloride and the age of water (up to 2 million years)
Carbon-14: Used to measure the age of water (up to 50,000 years)
Tritium (H-3): Used to measure 'young' groundwater (up to 30 years)
Lead-210: Used to date layers of sand and soil up to 80 years


X-rays from a radioactive element can induce fluorescent x-rays from other non-radioactive materials. The energies of the fluorescent x-rays emitted can identify the elements present in the material, and their intensity can indicate the quantity of each element present.

This technique is used to determine element concentrations in process streams of mineral concentrators. Probes containing radioisotopes and a detector are immersed directly into slurry streams. Signals from the probe are processed to give the concentration of the elements being monitored, and can give a measure of the slurry density. Elements detected this way include iron, nickel, copper, zinc, tin and lead.


Gamma irradiation is widely used for sterilizing medical products, and other products such as wool and food.
Cobalt-60 is the main isotope used, since it is an energetic gamma emitter. It is produced in nuclear reactors, sometimes as a by-product of power generation.
Large-scale irradiation for gamma sterilization is used for disposable medical supplies such as syringes, gloves, clothing and instruments, many of which would be damaged by heat sterilization. These facilities also process bulk products such as raw wool for export, archival documents and even wood, to kill parasites.
Smaller gamma irradiators are used for treating blood for transfusions and for other medical applications.
Food preservation is an increasingly important application, and has been used sine the 1960s. In 1997 the irradiation of red meat was approved in USA. Some 40 countries, excluding Australia, have approved irradiation of more than 50 different foods, to extend shelf life and to reduce the risk of food-borne diseases


Modern industry uses radioisotopes in a variety of ways to improve productivity and, in some cases, to gain information that cannot be obtained in any other way.

Sealed radioactive sources are used in industrial radiography, gauging applications and mineral analysis.

Short-lived radioactive material is used in flow tracing and mixing measurements.

Gamma sterilization is used for medical supplies, some bulk commodities and, increasingly, for food preservation.

Radioisotopes in Industry

Radioisotopes is a naturally or artificially produced radioactive isotope of an element.

What are radioisotopes?

Strontium isotopes can also used for “Strontium Isotope Stratigraphy” where materials, geological or biological which have precipitated in a marine situation and have retained their original isotope signature can be dated. These Sr isotope ratios are plotted against a very well calibrated data set for global marine Sr isotopes over geological time.

Image of a Thermal ionisation mass spectrometerRadiogenic isotopes are an extremely useful means to determine geological stratigraphy and digenesis from geological materials. For example, working with partners in the oil and gas industry (Isotopic Ltd) we can analyse the Strontium (Sr) isotope ratio of the salts from production waters and/or cores of any vintage to characterise reservoir stratigraphy, compartmentalisation and connectivity.


Image of a body from which isotopes were used to solve a crimeStable isotope signatures are a powerful tool for the forensic scientist. They can provide information about the geographical, geological, chemical and/or biological provenance of materials. They can provide evidence if two otherwise indistinguishable biogenic materials share the same history and are thus linked or related to each other. They are an excellent method for providing a comparative analysis of crime scene materials. We have, through Wolfram Meier-Augenstein, a global reputation for the use of stable isotopes for forensic work and have worked on a range of high profile cases.

Forensic science

• Air particulate samples are collected over a long period of time to obtain information necessary to determine air pollution source.
• Vehicular emission are the primarily source of pollution at ADMU according to the study of PNRI.

Identification of Major Sources of Air Pollution

• Nuclear techniques are used to assist in the monitoring and management of toxic Harmful Algal Bloom(HAB) commonly known as red tide.
• 2 Nuclear Techniques used to detect HAB  Saxitixin receptor blinding assay.
Lead -210 Dating Method  used to determine the historic profile of sediments core in HAB- affected areas.
• PNRI- Philippine Nuclear Research Institute

Management of Red Tide

is used to estimate rate of soil erosion and sedimentation.
has a half life of 30 years , it is still detectable today.
It sticks to clay materials is soil and is non- exchangeable , making it an efficient tracer of surface soil movement.

MonitoringSoil Erosion and Sedimentation
• Artificial radioisotope Cesium-137

Rapidly dividing cells are particularly sensitive to damage by radiation. For this reason, some cancerous growths can be controlled or eliminated by irradiating the area containing the growth. External irradiation can be carried out using a gamma beam from a radioactive cobalt-60 source, though in developed countries the much more versatile linear accelerators are now being utilised as a high-energy x-ray source (gamma and x-rays are much the same


PET, or Positron Emission Tomography, is one of the most sophisticated medical imaging technologies
available today. The radioactive components of radiopharmaceuticals used in PET procedures are
usually made in cyclotrons. At present, PET cameras are located in some hospitals of all major
Australian cities.
PET cameras are extremely sensitive. They can be used to detect very early signs of disease and
to map how organs such as the brain and heart are functioning. Most radioisotopes used with PET
have short half-lives.
SPECT, or Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography, is the most commonly used form
of tomographic imaging. SPECT cameras are usually used with radiopharmaceuticals that have
longer half-lives than those used with PET. Facilities are located throughout the country in all
major cities and towns.
Scanners which combine anatomical and functional imaging information are becoming widely
used. Many hospitals have PET-CT scanners and their usage of the more recently developed
SPECT-CT is expected to grow. Combination scanners improve the diagnostic accuracy of
diagnosis for many diseases, enhance physicians’ understanding of diseases, and also reduce
the number of imaging appointments patients require.

PET and SPECT imaging : //

This is a branch of medicine that uses radiation to provide information about the functioning of a person's specific organs or to treat disease. In most cases, the information is used by physicians to make a quick, accurate diagnosis of the patient's illness. The thyroid, bones, heart, liver and many other organs can be easily imaged, and disorders in their function revealed. In some cases radiation can be used to treat diseased organs, or tumours. Five Nobel Laureates have been intimately involved with the use of radioactive tracers in medicine.

Nuclear Medicine

Even very small quantities of radioactive material can be detected easily. This property can be used to trace the progress of some radioactive material through a complex path, or through events which greatly dilute the original material. In all these tracing investigations, the half-life of the tracer radioisotope is chosen to be just long enough to obtain the information required. No long-term residual radioactivity remains after the process.
Sewage from ocean out-falls can be traced in order to study its dispersion. Small leaks can be detected in complex systems such as power station heat exchangers. Flow rates of liquids and gasses in pipelines can be measured accurately, as can the flow rates of large rivers.


Radiation that comes from a radioisotope has its intensity reduced by matter between the radioactive source and a detector. Detectors are used to measure this reduction. This principle can be used to gauge the presence or the absence, or even to measure the quantity, of material between the source and the detector. The advantage in using this form of gauging or measurement is that there is no contact with the material being gauged.


Gamma Radiography works the same way as x-rays screen luggage in airports. However, to produce effective gamma rays only a small pellet of radioactive material sealed in a titanium capsule is needed, instead of a bulky x-ray producing machine.
The capsule containing the radioactive pellet is placed on one side of the object being screened and photographic film is placed on the other side. The gamma rays will pass through the object and form an image on the photographic screen. These rays will show flaws in metal casings and welded joints. This technique allows critical components to be inspected for internal defects without damaging the component itself.
As isotopes are easily transported, gamma radiography is very useful in remote areas where it can be used to check for defects in wields in pipelines carrying gas or oil.

Gamma Radiography

Strontium isotopes can also used for “Strontium Isotope Stratigraphy” where materials, geological or biological which have precipitated in a marine situation and have retained their original isotope signature can be dated. These Sr isotope ratios are plotted against a very well calibrated data set for global marine Sr isotopes over geological time.
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