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General Psychology

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knnth david

on 6 September 2013

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Transcript of General Psychology

General Psychology

Lesson 2. Visual Sensation
-The sense organ for our visual sensation is the eye and the stimulus to which it is sensitive is in the form of electromagnetic rays known as light waves.
Lesson 3 auditory sensations

Lesson 4. Olfactory and Gustatory sensation

Lesson 5: Cutaneous or Skin sensation
Chapter 5: Perception
Lesson 1 Perspective of perception

Sensation and Perception
structure n' Function
of the eye
EYEbALL- a jelly like substance called VITREOUS HUMOUR. It is this that makes the eyeball form yet squashy. A stalk anchors the eye in its socket. Inside the stalk is the optic nerve which takes messages from the eye to the brain.
Pupil – the amount of light entering the eye is regulated by the pupil which is an opening in the iris.
Retina – is the photosensitive area of the eye containing the rods and cones
Lens – the transparent body between iris and vitreous humor of the eye that focuses one image onto the retina. These lenses can be in curuature by the Ciliary muscles in order to focus the light rays into the retina.
Cornea – is a convex transparent membrane that covers the front of the eye. It is supposed to serve both a protective and a refraction function.
Optic nerve – nerve that transmits sensory information from the eye to the brain.
Aqueous humor – right behind the cornea is a liquid called the aqueous humor.
Vitreous humor – a liquid where light rays pass through first before passing through the retina
Iris – is the part of the eye that gives it color
Common Visual Defects
Hyperopia or farsightedness – is a condition wherein the lens does not bulge out far enough for close vision, either because it is flexible or because the muscles controlling its shape are too weak, thereby causing the image to come in focus behind the retina
Presbyopia – this is when farsightedness occurs with age. It is difficult or impossible for a presbyopic to focus on near objects
Myopia or nearsightedness – condition when the lens bulges out too far, then it causes the image to come into focus slightly in front of the surface of the retina,
Astigmatism – condition which occurs when the cornea is irregular whereas the image on the retina is distorted. This is happens when the left , right curve of the cornea is sharper than the up-down curve that it produces clear vision in one dimension, but unfocused vision in another dimension.
Tunnel vision – is a condition caused by a concentric narrowing of the field of vision so that a person seems to be looking through a tunnel or pipe.
Diplopia or Double vision – is a condition caused by the muscular inbalance which permits light reflected from the point to fall on non-responding receptors in the two retinas so that two slightly different images are transmitted to the brain.
Scoma – a condition resulting from excessive use of tobacco or alcohol, or from over-exposure of light, producing a temporary or permanent blind spot, thus seriously interfering with vision.
Dobelle eye
In this composite image a patient wears the “DOBELLE EYE”, a device using electrodes implanted in the brain and connected to a tiny television camera mounted on a pair of glasses, which allows the blind patient to make out the outlines of objects, large letters, and numbers on a contrasting background.
(WILLIAM DOBELLE of the DOBELLE INSTITUTE and COLUMBIA- Presbyterian medical center in NEW YORK created the device

structure n' function
of the EAR
The sense organ for our sense of hearing is the ear and the stimulus to which it is sensitive to in the form of sound waves caused by the vibration of airwaves.
The following attributes of sound waves, which make them different from one another are as follows.

Frequency – refers to the number of vibrations per second and it determines the pitch of the sound

Intensity or Loudness – refers to the amplitude of the sound wave or the height of its crest. If crests are high, the sound is intense, if the crest are shallow, the sound is weak. The same vibrations can either be very loud or very weak.

Timbre or tonal quality – refers to overtones present in a sound in addition to the fundamental tone.
External or outer ear -composed of the pinna, the auditory canal or external meatus, and the eardrum to tympanic membrane. The pinna is the cartilage projection of the skull which functions to catch the sound waves.

Middle ear – is the part of the ear filled with air. It is connected to the throat by the Eustachean tube w/c permits air pressure inside to stay the same as in the outside.aa
Inner ear – composed of two parts
The vestibular portion which has nothing to do with hearing but with balance
The cochlea which looks like a snail with 2.5turns.
- these two parts of the inner ear are filled with fluid called “ENDO LYMPH”
-the most important structure of the ear for transmitting sound is the “BASILAR MEMBRANE”. This is composed of tendinous fibers and it extends from the base to the apex of the cochleaaa
COMMON AUDITORY DEFECTS
-There are various disturbances of hearing in the form of deafness. Deafness may be either total deafness of one ear or both ears, or partial deafness of one ear or both ears.
Otitis media – this condition is due to infection of the middle ear caused by infection or physical intervention.
Tone deafness – is a condition which may be due to the inability of the person to differentiate tones, although there is nothing wrong with his hearing
Tinnitus – is the perception of sound in the absence of an acoustic stimulus. Tinnitus may be a buzzing, ringing, roaring, whistling or hissing quality or may involve more complex sounds that vary over time.
Olfactory receptors and olfactory stimuli

Smell is the most mysterious of our senses. The main olfactory system and its scent cells are at the highest point inside the nose.
The trigeminal system’s cells send signals via a different nerve to the brain. The function of the septal organ at the front of the nose is not yet understood.


Gustatory sensation

Without this sense, all kinds of food would simply taste flat.
The gustatory receptors and gustatory stimuli

-The sense organ for taste is made up of a neutron that ends in highly organized group of taste cells called the taste buds.


Factors that determine taste (2 primary factors)

The rate of penetration of materials into the taste cells.
The rate of the consequent breakdown of taste –sensitive chemical materials in the taste cell. The rate of penetration of materials refers to how far the chemical will penetrate the taste buds.
The rate of the consequent breakdown of taste –sensitive chemical materials in the taste cell. The rate of penetration of materials refers to how far the chemical will penetrate the taste buds.

The qualities of taste:
Most authorities agree that there are four primary taste qualities, namely SALTY, SOUR, BITTER and SWEET.

Cutaneous receptor’s and cutaneous stimuli
The organ involved in the sense of touch is the skin. The skin is composed of 3 layers.

An outer layer called EPIDERMIS
An intermediate layer called DERMIS
A deep layer of SUBCUTANEOUS ACTIPOSE TISSUE
In these layers are blood vessels and nerve endings which enable us to experience skin sensation.

Sensory function
The skin has 4 sensory function. PRESSURE, PAIN, WARMTH, and COLDNESS.
Pressure and pain are referred to as factual experiences.
Warmth and Coldness are referred to as thermal experiences.
Warmth and Coldness sensation(thermal Experiences)

Reaction to warmth is longer than reaction to coldness.
The threshold for coldness is less than the threshold for warmth
Adaptation to warmth is more rapid than adaptation to coldness
It is easier to locate coldness receptors than warmth receptors in skin.
Anything that affects the blood supply affects sensitivity
It is possible to brace up cold sensation by taking alcoholic drinks.
pressure and pain sensation(factual Experiences)

The nerve endings responsible for factual experiences are spread all over the body, sometimes interlocking and overlapping with each other

Perception
Has its rose in affecting differences in individual behavior. In fact, many of our behaviors are the offshoots of perception

Sensation
Is the process of detecting and encoding stimulus energy in the world. It is the giving of meaning to a stimulus received by our senses.

Perception – is thus the process of organizing and interpreting sensory information
Sense Weakest detectable stimulus(threshold)

Vision - A candle flame seen at 30 miles on a clear, dark night
Hearing -The tick of a watch under quiet condition at 20 feet
Taste - One teaspoon of sugar in two gallons of water.
Smell - One drop of perfume diffused into the entire volume of a 3-room apartment
Touch - The wing of bee falling on your cheek from a height of one centimeter.

Processes involved in perception:
Perception
It thus a neural activity that selects, organizes and interprets sensory signals to produce a mental representation of the original stimuli. It is the brain’s attempt to describe objects and events in the world, based on sensory input and knowledge.
Receptor celis or sensory receptor
Our sensory system gathers information that is about the world through the various forms of stimulus energy they can detect. Our sensory systems have adapted so that they respond best to particular kinds of stipurations: our eyes respond to light energy, our ears to sound energy, our skin to mechanical pressure, and so on
Each sense organ has a large number of specialized structures called RECEPTOR CELLS that are designed to detect a particular form of energy. These cells also function as filters, or screen, for incoming information


Factors that influence perception
-the widely held view of perception is that it is bipolar in nature, that is perception is dependent upon the interaction of the individual with the stimulus,
Characteristic of Stimulus. (EXTERNAL CUES)


Repetition- this is one factors; that advertiser use very effectively

Contrast - means an intensified difference form the immediate surroundings.



Characteristic of the Perceiver.(INTERNAL CUES)

Motivation – perception is highly selective. We tend to perceive more those objects or stimuli that are consistent with our motives.

Past experiences – experiences that are rewarding and punishing tend to color our perception


Development of perception
Two groups have advanced theories to explain the development of perception:

First, the group of theorist, the NATIVISTS insists that perception is inherent or inborn.

Another group of theorists, the EMPIRICISTS argues that learning is more important than innate characteristic int the development of perception,
According to the GESTALT approach, “the whole determines the parts, it is not merely the sum total”


Principle of organization

Lesson 2. Kinds and formation of perceptions.

How perception are formed?
Are rules that specify how our brains organize individual pieces or elements into a meaningful whole or a perception. According to Gestalt principles of organization, your brain form a perception by automatically arranging or grouping visual stimuli according to the perceptual principles.

Figure ground – states that in organizing stimuli we tend to automatically distinguish between a figure and a ground.

Closure – states that in organizing stimuli, are tend to fill in any missing parts of a figure and see the figure as complete.

Continuity – states that in organizing stimuli, to favor smooth or continuous paths when interpreting a series of points or lines.

Perceptual constancy - refers to our tendency to perceive sizes, shapes, brightness and color as remaining the same even through their physical characteristics are constantly changing.

Size constancy – refers to our tendency to perceive objects as remaining the same size even when their images on the retina continually grow or shrink.

Shape constancy – refers to our tendency to see an object as remaining the same shape when we view it from different angles
Color constancy – refers to our tendency to see an object as remaining stable despite differences in lighting
Brightness constancy – refers to the tendency to perceive brightness as remaining the same changing illumination


Depth perception
Refers to your ability to experience depth visual perception, although the images on your retina are only two-dimentional (height and Width)

Binocular Depth Cues
Depend upon the movement of both eyes (bi means two; ocular means eye)

Retinas disparity and 3D
Retinal disparity refers to a binocular depth cues that depend on the distance between the eyes.

Monocular cues for depth perception
Are produced by signals from a single eye- they are most commonly determined by how objects, are arrange, in the environment
Linear perspective
Is a monocular depth cue that result as a parallel lines come together or converge in the distance.

Relative size
Is a monocular cue for depth that results when we expect two objects to be the same size when they are not

Light and shadow
Constitute a monocular cue for depth. Brightly lit objects appear closer, while objects in shadow appears farther away
Texture gradient
Is monocular depth cue; area with sharps detailed texture are interpreted as being closer, and those with less sharpness and details as more distant
Motion parallax
Is monocular depth cue based on the speed of moving objects. Objects that appear to be moving at high speed are interpreted as closer to us than moving slowly

Illusion and Hallucination
Are the two distinct perceptual errors.

Illusion – is a perceptual experience in which we perceive an image as being so strangely distorted that in reality, it cannot and does not exist.

Hallucination – there is also a distortion of sensory perception – except that there is no known physical stimuli present.

Movement – moving stimuli are more likely to attract attention than stationary ones.

Change in stimulus – change in the characteristic of stimuli as a result of lighting and movement may aid in the easier perception of an object
Physical characteristics of the individual – one who is good-looking maybe perceived by others as ugly and vice versa.

Set – defined as a temporary tendency or expectancy to respond in a certain way, or fashion.
Interest and attitudes – people attend to those aspects of their environment that they are interested in.

Attention – human beings can only be aware of a very limited number of stimuli.
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