Loading presentation...

Present Remotely

Send the link below via email or IM

Copy

Present to your audience

Start remote presentation

  • Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
  • People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
  • This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
  • A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
  • Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article

Do you really want to delete this prezi?

Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.

DeleteCancel

Make your likes visible on Facebook?

Connect your Facebook account to Prezi and let your likes appear on your timeline.
You can change this under Settings & Account at any time.

No, thanks

ALTITUDES OF SCHOOL REFORM

No description
by

Hannah Williams

on 14 October 2015

Comments (0)

Please log in to add your comment.

Report abuse

Transcript of ALTITUDES OF SCHOOL REFORM

STATE LEVEL
META-COGNITIVE LEVEL
ALTITUDES OF SCHOOL REFORM
NATIONAL LEVEL
DISTRICT LEVEL
CLASSROOM LEVEL
The purpose of schools is to prepare students to be strong candidates for college and careers by providing educational opportunities, high expectations, and rigorous academics.
The purpose of schooling should be to provide the opportunity for self-discovery and community awareness, and to protect and develop the skills needed for life-long learning, navigation of the real-world and future productivity.
ACCOUNTABILITY:
How Do We Know ALL Students Are Learning?
ACCOUNTABILITY:
How do we know all students are learning?
CURRICULUM & STANDARDS:
CULTURE:
How do we do things around here?
CURRICULUM & STANDARDS:
How and what do we teach and who teaches it?
EQUITY & INCLUSION:
How do we ensure all children have access to all educational opportunities?
EQUITY & INCLUSION:
How Do We Ensure All Children Have Access To Good Educational Opportunities?
FAMILIES & COMMUNITIES:
How Do We Engage/Leverage Them To Improve Student Achievement?
FAMILIES & COMMUNITIES:
How do we engage/leverage them to improve student achievement?
MODELS, STRUCTURES & SYSTEMS:
How Do We Organize Schools?
CULTURE:
How do we do things around here?
CULTURE:
How Do We Do Things Around Here?
ACCOUNTABILITY:
How do we know all students are learning?
EQUITY & INCLUSION:
How Do We Ensure All Children Have Access To Good Educational Opportunities?
FAMILIES & COMMUNITIES:
How Do We Engage/Leverage Them To Improve Student Achievement?
CURRICULUM & STANDARDS:
What & How Do We Teach and Who Teaches It?
MODELS, STRUCTURES & SYSTEMS:
How Do We Organize Schools?
ACCOUNTABILITY:
How Do We Know ALL Students Are Learning?
FAMILIES & COMMUNITIES:
How do we engage/leverage them to improve student achievement?
CURRICULUM & STANDARDS:
How and what do we teach and who teaches it?
EQUITY & INCLUSION:
How Do We Ensure All Children Have Access To Good Educational Opportunities?
CURRICULUM & STANDARDS:
How and what do we teach and who teaches it?
CULTURE:
How do we do things around here?
EQUITY & INCLUSION:
How Do We Ensure All Children Have Access To Good Educational Opportunities?
ACCOUNTABILITY:
How do we know all students are learning?
MODELS, STRUCTURES & SYSTEMS:
How Do We Organize Schools?
FAMILIES & COMMUNITIES:
How Do We Engage/Leverage Them To Improve Student Achievement?
SCHOOL LEVEL
MODELS, STRUCTURES & SYSTEMS:
How Do We Organize Schools?
POLICY
PRACTICE
RESEARCH
What is the PURPOSE of schooling?
What is it, precisely, that we expect all educated citizens to have learned? What explicit knowledge, skills, and understanding of content will help define the day-to-day work of teaching and learning?
We do not agree that Common Core’s standards are clear, adequate, or of sufficient quality to warrant being this country’s national standards. Its definition of “college readiness” is below what is currently required to enter most four-year state colleges.
The primary responsibility of our schools should be to nurture and to enhance the wit and the character of the young.
“John, there is absolutely no way I will ever allow this to be taught to third graders in my school. Homosexuality is not something that is talked about in middle schools let alone in third grade! I realize I have given you a lot of freedom in planning and implementing curriculum, but this will never be taught in my school. Not in my school!”
“I just can’t believe that when we’re trying to teach their kids to be tolerant people, we get accused of being anti-religion or that we’re teaching kids to be gay!”
“People oppose and fear the unfamiliar,” State Senator Mark Leno said in an interview. “When grade-school students understand the arc of the L.G.B.T. movement over 40 years, that otherness begins to dissipate. That’s desperately needed right now.”
“When you call us haters, or bigoted, or unintelligent because we believe in God’s word,” Mr. Jefferson said, “that’s hate, that’s bigotry.”
“No one should take my right to tell me what can be shown to my child,” Cookie Gordon, a mother of two, told the board.
Elmore: policies that are nominally designed with the intent of improving failing schools are actually likely to have the opposite effect—to prevent improving schools from succeeding.
“If [Geoffrey] Canada's model was one of contamination, in which positive ideas and practices spread within a family and throughout a neighborhood, the KIPP model sometimes seemed by contrast to be one of quarantine, walling off the most promising kids from a sick neighborhood’s contagion.”
ELMORE: Current accountability systems aren’t built to do what they are supposed to do—to push and support schools in getting better...I would like to suggest that the problem of failing schools is a problem of fixing both the accountability systems and the schools they classify as failing. (253-4)
Principle of Reciprocity: requires major investments in infra- structure at the state and local level to meet the requirements of expertise and support for failing schools (254)
Principle of Reciprocity: requires major investments in infra- structure at the state and local level to meet the requirements of expertise and support for failing schools (254)
ELMORE: Current accountability systems aren’t built to do what they are supposed to do—to push and support schools in getting better...I would like to suggest that the problem of failing schools is a problem of fixing both the accountability systems and the schools they classify as failing.
ELMORE: Building capacity in failing schools is going to require a lot of feet on the ground .
In the world of performance-based accountability, high-performing schools are made to appear to be the same, even when they are not, while low-performing schools present a wide variety of conditions that make it hard to prescribe uniform solutions to their problems.
LEA (Local Educational Authority), CMO (Charter Management Organization), EMO (Education Management Organization), Pilot School (In Boston only), Turnaround Schools (School improvement grants)
Charter Schools Accountable to Whom?
Parents, State, their Board, Authorizers
Charter Schools?
Delpit (also regarding diversity/inclusion):
1. Issues of power are enacted in classrooms.
2. There are codes or rules for participating in power; that is, there is a "culture of power."
3. The rules of the culture of power are a reflection of the rules of the culture of those who have power.
4. If you are not already a participant in the culture of power, being told explicitly the rules of that culture makes acquiring power easier.
5. Those with power are frequently least aware of— or least willing to acknowl- edge — its existence. Those with less power are often most aware of its existence. (282)
Stigler & Hiebert: Cultural activities, such as teaching, are not_ invented full-blown but rather evolve over long periods o f time in ways that are consistent with the stable web of beliefs..and. assumptions that arc part o f the culture.
Evans: the true nature and functions of organizational cul- ture reveals that it operates at a profound level, exerting a potent influence over beliefs and behavior to preserve continuity and oppose change.
Real culture change is "systemic change at a deep psychological level involving attitudes, actions, and artifacts that have developed over substantial periods of time."
Evans: the true nature and functions of organizational culture reveals that it operates at a profound level, exerting a potent influence over beliefs and behavior to preserve continuity and oppose change. (The Culture of Resistance, 41)
Real culture change is "systemic change at a deep psychological level involving attitudes, actions, and artifacts that have developed over substantial periods of time" (citing Vaill, 1989, pp. 149-150) (49)
Prudence Carter:

The administration should support the struggle not only for mixed-race schools—by reversing the dangerous legal and policy trends that act on the false premise of a postracial society—but also for wholly integrated schools that attend not just to the proximity of students across racial groups but also to the social and cultural requisites of racial integration.
“Fiddling with organizational structure is a favorite device of educational policymakers and administrators because it communicates to the public in a symbolic way that policymakers are concerned about the performance of the system. The evidence is scanty, however, that structural change leads in any reliable way to changes in how teachers teach, what they teach, or how students learn.” Elmore.
Prudence Carter:

The administration should support the struggle not only for mixed-race schools—by reversing the dangerous legal and policy trends that act on the false premise of a postracial society—but also for wholly integrated schools that attend not just to the proximity of students across racial groups but also to the social and cultural requisites of racial integration. (293)
“Fiddling with organizational structure is a favorite device of educational policymakers and administrators because it communicates to the public in a symbolic way that policymakers are concerned about the performance of the system. The evidence is scanty, however, that structural change leads in any reliable way to changes in how teachers teach, what they teach, or how students learn.”
Prudence Carter:

educational mobility will also require a heightened consciousness among educators to “do diversity” with depth: by increasing their own knowledge base to help vanquish the injurious communicative divides among and between students and teachers who differ by race, ethnicity, culture, and socioeconomic status, among other social identities.
“Fiddling with organizational structure is a favorite device of educational policymakers and administrators because it communicates to the public in a symbolic way that policymakers are concerned about the performance of the system. The evidence is scanty, however, that structural change leads in any reliable way to changes in how teachers teach, what they teach, or how students learn.”
How do schools maintain environments that diminish racial boundaries so that nondominant racial groups of students participate significantly more in high-status academic courses (Mickelson, 2001; Tyson, Darity, & Castellino, 2005)?
Bersin Theory of Action: We focused on five paths (10)
· massive investment in and reliance on instructional leadership.
· professional development infrastructure.
· extended-learning opportunities for kids who need additional time and instructional support.
· build modern environments for teaching and learning.
· effective parent and teacher voices. This is the democratization of public education.
Maxine Greene: restrictions do indeed have to be brought within reach so that persons of all sorts can come together to change them. (220)
Bersin: I don’t think that we can address the equity issue—let alone the excellence issue—without recognizing that there is the need for significant, significant readjustment of power relationships inside high schools. (13)
Do you really know the math you're teaching?!?! I'm going to teach you how to teach math.
Hehir: many disability advocates view standards-based educational reforms as holding great promise to help eradicate the most insidious ableist assumption: that people with disabilities are not intellectually capable.
Olsen “Reparable Harm”: It is the role of the district to ensure high quality implementation of research-based programs for English Learners.
Dante Alighieri Case Study
“During the entire [lottery] process, we also keep an eye on several other balancing
concerns: elementary school, ability levels (as indicated by course request data), and
students receiving special education services.” (173) (completely took away the random nature of a lottery system)
Machievelli: And one should bear in mind that there is nothing more difficult to execute, nor more dubious of success, nor more dangerous to administer, than to introduce a new order of things; for he who introduces it has all those who profit from the old order as his enemies, and he has only lukewarm allies in all those who might profit from the new…
Olsen “Reparable Harm” (regarding inclusion issues in schools): Provide parents with the information needed to monitor the impact of the schools’ services and programs on their students (4)
Heifetz: If the role of the leader is first to help people face reality and then to mobilize them to make change, then one of the questions that defines both of those tasks is this: What's precious, and what's expendable? Which values and operations are so central to our core that if we lose them, we lose ourselves? …At the highest level, the work of a leader is to lead conversations about what's essential and what's not.
Kane et al. “Evaluating Teacher Effectiveness”
Little has changed in the way that teachers are evaluated. A primary stumbling block has been a lack of agreement on how best to identify and measure effective teaching. -
We find that evaluations based on well-executed classroom observations do identify effective teachers and teaching practices.
“There is some evidence in the literature that it takes one to two years before the impact of PD is reflected in teachers’ practice, and perhaps even longer before it affects their students’ achievement in significant ways.
“There is some evidence in the literature that it takes one to two years before the impact of PD is reflected in teachers’ practice, and perhaps even longer before it affects their students’ achievement in significant ways.
TRAVEL THROUGH TIME TO THE...
ADJUSTMENT
ACCESS
ACCOUNTABILITY
“Policy elites” of early 1900s – mostly white men – developed “blueprint for educational progress”
PAST
CHILDRESS: centralization vs decentralization. In order to change the current system (regardless of which end state on the continuum you are more inclined to support), what kind of action is necessary? What would be more effective: a bottom- up grassroots movement by parents and educators, or a top-down effort led by elected officials such as the president or congressional leaders? How might each work in practice? For this question, we must reintroduce the constitutional and statutory constraints, because creating dramatic change toward either pole of the continuum would require overturning existing rules of the game and/or introducing new ones.
In the early twentieth century, a version of progressive schooling, drawn from the work of John Dewey, and many other school reformers, swept across the United States, changing curricula, partially modifying instruction and expanding the role of the school to take on duties of the family, that the family had once discharged.
With U.S. Supreme Court decisions on race in the 1950s and a growing civil rights movement in the 1960s, however, the troubles of urban schools and the neglect of personal and social development of students led to a strong revival of progressive ideas in what was called then "open classrooms" and "open space" schools. Federal laws created many new programs for poor and minority children. Court cases extended to students constitutional rights to express opinions and to have due process in the handling of disputes within schools.
The current conversation about goals in the United States is not about what I would call the primary goal of schooling. It is about being first in the world in science and math achievement. (CUBAN)
So here are my criteria for determining good schools. Are parents, staff and students satisfied with what occurs in the school? Is the school achieving the explicit goals that it has set for itself? And finally, are democratic behaviours, values and attitudes evident in the student (Cuban)
Good schools are hard to get because of an unexamined bias for only one version of what is a good school. They are hard to get because we have not examined carefully, deliberately, and openly different conceptions of goodness and how each view is connected to democracy. Until Americans shed the view of a one best school for all, the squabbles over whether traditional schooling is better than progressive will continue. Such a futile war of words ignores the fundamental purpose of public schooling as revitalizing democratic virtues in each generation. (more cuban)
Delpit concludes that teachers must teach all students the explicit and implicit rules of power as afirst step toward a morejust society- The teacher cannot be the only expert in the classroom. To deny students their own expert knowledge is to disempower them.We must keep the perspective that people are ex-perts on their own lives. There are certainly aspects of the outside world of which they may not be aware, but they can be the only authentic chroniclers of their own experience. We must not be too quick to deny their interpretations, or accuse them of "false consciousness." We must believe that people are rational beings, and there- fore always act rationally. We may not understand their rationales, but that in no way militates against the existence of these rationales or reduces our responsibility to attempt to apprehend them. And finally, we must learn to be vulnerable enoughto allow our world to turn upside down in order to allow the realities of others to edge themselves into our consciousness. In other words, we must become ethnog- raphers in the true sense.Teachers are in an ideal position to play this role, to attempt to get all of the is- sues on the table in order to initiate true dialogue.
The birth of public schools in Boston in the 1830s and 1840s was accompanied by a fierce battle between reformers and school men about whether instruction should be grounded in the rigorous recitation of facts in books or in efforts to solve "real" practical problems.
Horace Mann campaigned for public schools in the 184os
Prudence Carter: "...develop educational policies that demonstrate a mindfulness of the massive educational “debt,” to borrow from Gloria Ladson-Billings (2006), that people of color inherited from systems of colonization, genocide, and slavery.


The administration should support the struggle not only for mixed-race schools—by reversing the dangerous legal and policy trends that act on the false premise of a postracial society—but also for wholly integrated schools that attend not just to the proximity of students across racial groups but also to the social and cultural requisites of racial integration.

Education is the ideal site for social change, but teaching students to prac- tice citizenship more fully—at both national and global levels—is not a job for schools alone."
Expectations
Support
John
MODELS, STRUCTURES & SYSTEMS:
How Do We Organize Schools?
History of School Reform
1700
1900
1800
2000
literate people = an informed democracy
Schooling was seen as a common responsibility
1 out of 36 plots of land in a township was for a school
white boys only
Era of the Common Schools
Everyone pays whether they have kids in schools or not.
If parents wanted more, they could pay a rate tax (uhoh! now the rich have educational privilege!)
property tax is now how we fund schools
Control should stay local
1600
Academies (had to have a "charter" in order to operate
Boston Latin School ---> Harvard College
ASSIMILATION
Age-Graded Schools
No Child Left Behind
Need to "make Americans"
Schools are about personal growth
"Progressive"
Integrated Schools
Schools became a vehicle for advancing equal access
Brown Vs. Board of Education
Testing! Standards!
Rethinking Schools (era of small schools)
Race to The Top!
Increase charter schools
Teacher evaluations linked to student performance...
SINCE STUDENT BACKGROUNDS AND CIRCUMSTANCES ARE DIFFERENT...

SHOULD SCHOOLS RECOGNIZE STUDENT DIFFERENCES AND OFFER DIFFERENT PROGRAMS FOR DIFFERENT STUDENTS, THUS ATTENDING TO INDIVIDUAL NEEDS?

OR SHOULD SCHOOLS ADHERE TO A COMMON APPROACH FOR ALL?
CAN NATIONAL POLICY
ENHANCE EQUITY IN
SCHOOLS?
Equality vs. Equity
DO STATES DIFFERING EXPECTATIONS NATURALLY MAKE FOR AN UNEQUAL EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM?
ARLENE AKERMAN
HOW DOES A DISTRICT ALLOCATE RESOURCES TO ENSURE EQUITY IN ALL SCHOOLS?
HOW DO WE STRUCTURE A CLASSROOM SO THAT IS COMPLETELY INCLUSIVE?

IS IT POSSIBLE? AND ARE WE TRAINING TEACHERS APPROPRIATELY?
"In most teacher education programs, students encounter a scholar of color teaching the 'multicultural' or 'diversity' course, and sometimes teaching an English as a Second Language (ESL) or bilingual education course. Rarely do they see these scholars as helping them make sense of teaching and learning. Additionally, the very coursework that comprises teacher education fails to take up notions of culture and learning in robust and substantive ways. Instead of a “diversity” course, our prospective teachers could benefit from an authentic course on culture—from an anthropological perspective—and how culture impacts learning. Few teacher education programs offer such a course and, when they do, they rarely offer it as a program requirement." - Gloria Ladson-billings
WHERE SHOULD WE FALL?
CENTRALIZED
DECENTRALIZED
TO WHAT EXTENT DO WE WANT TO ALLOW FOR SCHOOL CHOICE?

ARE CHARTER SCHOOLS AN EFFECTIVE ALTERNATIVE TO TRADITIONAL PUBLIC SCHOOLS?
AT WHICH LEVEL (NATIONAL, STATE, DISTRICT, SCHOOL) CAN WE MOST LEVERAGE SCHOOL REFORM?
What makes a good school?

Good for what and good for whom?
collaboration?
project-based?
independent practice?
How can we set up
classrooms
in order to maximize
student learning?

How does technology play into this?

How does the traditional
role of the teacher need to change?
WHAT DO WE VALUE AS A NATION IN AN ASSESSMENT?

WHAT SHOULD COME FIRST, THE STANDARDS OR THE ASSESSMENT?
WHAT ROLE SHOULD
THE STATE PLAY IN
DETERMINING
"PROFICIENCY"?
LINK TO ARTICLE ABOUT DEMOCRATIC SCHOOLS: "No Teachers, No Class, No Homework. Would You Send Your Kids Here?" http://www.theatlantic.com/national/print/2012/12/no-teachers-no-class-no-homework-would-you-send-your-kids-here/265354/
Should there be a national common core of knowledge?

Should the federal government be involved with setting standards and designing a curriculum?

If we do have common standards, do we also need a common curriculum?
Should all teachers be state certified?

What flexibility should states have to alter their standards and how they meet them?
How do we smoothly transition standards into effective practice in a cohesive manner across a district?

Should all schools in the same district teach the same set of standards?

How do we support districts in allowing for different kinds of schools with different kinds of curriculum that meet the same standards?
How do we support teachers in implementing curriculum?

Should we track students? If so, should different tracks of students have different standards?
Should teacher/student interests play into what gets taught?

What is student engagement and how important is it to learning? How do you differentiate PD for teachers with different needs?

Is there such a thing as "best practices" and should they be present in all classrooms?
Does instruction in every class need to look the same?

Should school culture dictate the kinds of teachers they hire and vice versa?

How do you create a culture of continuous improvement?
What & How Do We Teach and who teaches it?
CULTURE:
How do we do things around here?
To what extent should government policy grant access to school choice to families?
In the shadows...
How do we incorporate the wide diversity of communities that make up a state into a single education system?
What responsibility do we have to educate adults in the community?

How do we mobilize a whole community in support of its education system and district?

What should school boards embody, who should be on them, and what should they do?
How do schools create alliances amongst parent and communities that enhance the student learning experience?
How do you connect student learning to the experiences students have in their families and communities?

How do you connect family and community resources to create a network of support for each individual student in my class?
Early Childhood Education?
What values do we have as a country and how are these reflected in our schools?
How much influence should private institutions (Bill & Melinda Gates foundation, etc) have over the landscape of education?

How does the sizes and layouts of school district affect equity?
Small schools, large schools, or both?

How does a district turn around a culture of failure?
How do we develop a safe, inclusive culture for all students?

How closely do we align classroom culture to school culture?

How do you develop the cultural proficiency of all teachers to ensure that all students can learn?

Are we preparing teachers to have the skills necessary to create culture in their classroom?

How do we make students explicitly aware of the existing culture of power and provide them with the cultural capital necessary to have access to the full breadth of opportunities?

Stigler & Hiebert: To dig deeper we must ask why Japanese teachers want a cumulative record of the lesson to be available to students and why U.S. teachers want to control students' attention. To answer these questions we need to situate these two systems of teaching in the context of cultural beliefs about how students learn and about the role the teacher can play in this process.
The purpose of schools should be to develop students to be passionate, self-aware, critical and creative thinkers who are ready to act on their passions to make an impact in the world.
We must hold schools accountable for providing the access, cognitive and non-cognitive skills, rigor, and support that will enable our students to address the challenges that will continue to confront citizens of the 21st century.
How do we use student performance data to improve teaching practice?

Should we link student performance
to teacher evaluations?
Thed present allocation of content to time is largely a matter of administrative convenience. If one were to use student conceptual understanding as an index for the investment of time, one might get a very different time allocation. Might some students require more sustained time to learn certain ideas than others? Might all students need more time on any given day than is available in the current schedule to focus on certian particularly difficul ideas? Might certain ideas span content areas- spatial relationships, for example, might be reinforced in math and visual arts- and therefore require some integrations of these areas?
The SSC Package of Reforms. Students enrolled in SSCs did not just attend schools that were small. SSC enrollees attended schools that were purposefully organized around smaller, personalized units of adults and students, where students had a better chance of being known and noticed, and where teachers knew enough about their charges to provide appropriate academic and socioemotional supports. SSCs were not only new but were mission-driven. Their recent establishment via a demanding authorization process, which rejected more school proposals than it approved, required that a prospective school leadership team articulate an educational philosophy and demonstrate how it would motivate teachers, community members, and partner organizations around it.
Humanities Preparatory Academy: Mission StatementIt is our mission to provide a philosophical and practical education for all students, an education that features creativity and inquiry, encourages habitual reading and productivity, as well as self-reflection and original thought. We agree with Socrates that the “unexamined life is not worth living,” and it is our desire to prepare students to live thoughtful and meaningful lives. We are committed to inspiring the love of learning in our students.This mission can best be accomplished in a school that is a democratic community. As a democratic community, we strive to exemplify the values of democracy: mutual respect, cooperation, empathy, the love of humankind, justice for all, and service to the world.Humanities Preparatory Academy is college preparatory. Our curriculum and pedagogy prepare students for the rigors of college work and motivate them to desire and plan for a higher education. In preparing students for college, we believe that we are moving students toward higher levels of intellectual engagement while they are in high school.It is our mission, as well, at Humanities Preparatory Academy, to provide a haven for students who have previously experienced school as unresponsive to their needs as individuals. We wish for all students to find their voice and to speak knowledgably and thoughtfully on issues that concern their school and their world. We aid students in this endeavor by personalizing our learning situations, by democratizing and humanizing the school environment, and by creating a “talking culture,” an atmosphere of informal intellectual discourse among students and faculty.
Despite some improvements in recent years, statistical research shows that sexual minority youth are still at disproportionate risk for depression and substance abuse, as well as a number of other negative outcomes both in and out of the school environment.9 The most disturbing finding about these young people continues to be the percentage who report suicidal thinking and behaviors.“How can you possibly focus on reading and writing skills when you’re basically trying to survive every day?”


New York Times:

Clashes Pit Parents vs. Gay-Friendly Curriculums in Schools
The education of students with disabilities has been plagued by low expectations, which is why many in the disability community have sought to have students included in state and national accountability sys- tems (Thurlow, 2000).
The hope is that by including students in statewide assessments, more attention will be paid to assuring that these students receive quality programs (McDonnell et al., 1997). In 1997, advocates were successful in getting the Individ- uals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) amended to require students with disabilities to be included in statewide assessments
•In order to organize teaching, a school- any school- must solve at least four problemsoHow students are to be grouped for purposes of instructionoHow teachers’ work is to be divided vis-à-vis groups of studentsoHow content is allocated to timeoHow students’ progress is to be assessed.
What systems and structures in place to ensure that all students are learning?
Larry Cuban argues that no one type of school is best for all children, but that different communities require different schools.He holds the position that redefining good schools must include dismantling the division of students by age and grade. Cuban believes that parent, student, and teacher satisfaction must be the standard for determining a good school, and what matters in judging whether schools are good is not whether they are progressive, community-based, or traditional, but “whether they are discharging their primary duty to seriously and deliberately educate students to think and act democratically inside and outside of classrooms”
ARGUMENTS FOR COMMON CORE STANDARDS:

Expectations for achievement should be equal

Clearer vision of what children should learn

Equal opportunity

Consistent

NOT a straightjacket or narrowing of learning possibilities

There would be room for states to infuse the standards with variations to reflect student contexts

“living work.”


Interdisciplinary approach
(everyone is responsible for these standards not just the ELA teachers. Good.)

AGAINST:

First, there is no constitutional or statutory basis for national standards, national assessments, or national curricula.

Second, there is no consistent evidence that a national curriculum leads to high academic achievement.

Third, the national standards on which the administration is planning to base a national curriculum are inadequate


Fourth, there is no body of evidence for a “best” design for curriculum sequences in any subjec

Fifth, there is no evidence to justify a single high school curriculum for all students

(That was from the counter manifesto)

Still missing creativity as a skill
Barbara Eghan
Hai Son
Hannah Williams
Ben Mackey
Democracy?
I reallocated the resources in my district
to ensure the highest need schools
were recieving the support that they
needed to improve. This included money,
personnel, time, etc in an attempt to
create an equitable district.
Should districts
keep different kinds of schools accountable in the same way?
How do we set up systems to ensure that all ADULTS are learning?
Full transcript