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WORDS, SENTENCES AND DICTIONARIES

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bich tuyen

on 5 December 2013

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Transcript of WORDS, SENTENCES AND DICTIONARIES

WORDS, SENTENCES AND DICTIONARIES
3.Words with predictable meanings
5.Conclusion: words versus lexical items
There are also sets of words in which some similarity in sound to reflect a similarity in meaning.Sound symbolism is the idea that vocal sounds or phonemes carry meaning in and of themselves.

Ex:
Gl-Words: glow,gleam,glory,glitter,glance and glimpse
Over the -ump: hump,lump,plump,bump,crump
Biology – biologist

Entomology – entomologist

Zoology – Zoologist


So based on the knowledge of one’s languages you can easily guess the meaning of the brand new word.

A: I never choose the
heroine
in the video game ?
B: Why ? Do you hate woman that much ?
Question: Do any words have meanings that are predictable?
What kinds of word do have predictable meaning ?
Try to predict meanings of these words?
Screech!!!
Woof woof!!!

There are some sound seems to reflect their meaning directly called
onomatopoeic words.

Examples:
a.The ticking of the clock !
English: Tick tock Japanese: Chikku Tokku Vietnamese: Tíc tóc
b.Sound of pig
German and America: oink oink
South Korea: kouro kouro kuh
Japan: buhi buhi
If idioms are listed in dictionaries, should proverbs be listed too? As usual, ordinary dictionaries do not list proverbs, because they are conventionally regarded as belonging not to the vocabulary of a language but to its usage.
For present purposes, what is important about proverbs is that they constitute a further example of a linguistic unit whose use and meaning are in some degree unpredictable, but which is larger than a word.
Example:
(1) People who do not finish a job really make me angry.
(2) People who do not finish a job really make me see red.
=> “see red” in sentence (2) means “angry”.

Thus, although “see red” consists of two words, it functions as a single unit and its meaning is not predictable. In technical terms, “see red” is an idiom.

Idioms are enormously various in length, structure and function. “See red” behaves rather like an adjective. Many idioms behave more like nouns.

For example:
(3) Vaccinations are an unavoidable matter if you want to travel.
(4) Vaccinations are a necessary evil if you want to travel.
In most of the idioms that we have looked at so far, all the individual words (red, necessary, evil) have a literal or non-idiomatic meaning in other contexts. However, there are also words that never occur except in an idiomatic context.

For example:
- I like everything about summer - the light, the warmth, the clothes - the whole caboodle.

Akin to idioms, but distinguishable from them, are phrases in which individual words have collocationally restricted meanings.
For example:
- blue baby: a baby born with slightly blue skin, usually because it has something wrong with its heart.
- blue – blooded: describes someone who has been born into a family which belongs to the highest social class.
- blue – collar: describes people who do work needing strength or physical skill rather than office work.
=> These phrases may count as idiomatic because the meaning that “blue” has in them is not its usual meaning.

A proverb is a traditional saying, syntactically a sentence, whose conventional interpretation differs from what is suggested by the literal meaning of the words it contains.

Example:
- “Two wrongs don’t make a right”: When someone has done something bad to you, trying to get revenge will only make things worse.
- "The pen is mightier than the sword”: Trying to convince people with ideas and words is more effective than trying to force people to do what you want.
- "No man is an island”: You can't live completely independently. Everyone needs help from other people.
4.Non - Words With Unpredictable Meanings
Words have 2 characteristics:

- They have meanings that are unpredictable and so must be listed in dictionaries (lexical item)
- They are the building-blocks for word and phrases.

Although this may be broadly true, the two characteristic do not always go together.
* Although many words have meanings that are predictable, there is nevertheless a tendency for these meaning to lose motivation overtime.
* Many of the lexical items that are phrases or sentences have meanings which can be seen as metaphorical extensions of a literal meaning, so do that extant interpretation remains motivated.
EXERCISES
1. Which of these following words may NOT need to be listed in a dictionary or modern English?
a. beautiful beautifully beauty
b. selfish selfishness selfishly
c. entertaining entertainment entertain
d. cloudy cloud cloudless
e. economic economical economist

2. Which of the following phrases (in italics) may be lexical items?
a. The abortion issue is a political
hot potato
in the United States.
b. She likes eating
hot potatoes.
c. Tom’s favorite food is
hot dog.
d. You won your race?
Hot dog!
e. This flat is a
far cry
from the house they had before.
f. This flat is
completely different
from the house they had before.

EXERCISES

There are words composed of parts where the meaning of one part is sufficient to determine the meaning of the whole word.

Examples:
Can you guess the meaning of the red word?
I want to be an entomologist.

Can you guess again?

- We often think that a sentence must always consist of more than one word. However, it’s the fact that we sometime use a word to express warning shout, conventional commands, item on shopping lists.

Ex: “Listen!” , “Go!”, “Look!”, “Camera!”, “Action!” , “cheese”, “fish”...
- In a dictionary, you can find:
Association of word
Alphabetically listed
Definition of what it means
Information about grammar
Pronunciation
- Words are known as the basic units of meaningful building-blocks of language, possessing 2 characteristics:
1. unpredictable meaning: in that they have meanings that are unpredictable and so must be listed in dictionaries.
2. building-block (in phrases/ sentences): in that they are the building-blocks out of which phrases and sentences are formed.
1.Words as meaningful building-blocks of language
Types and tokens may be most clearly demonstrated using words.

Consider the following:
space, time, space, time, time, time.

The question may be asked, how many words are in that line? The answer will either be six, if one is referring to individual words, or tokens, or two, if one is referring to types of words.
Specifically, there are
two types
of words in that sentence, “space” and “time”, but there are
six tokens
, six individual occurances of those types. There are two tokens of the type “space” and four tokens of the type “time”.
2.Words as types and words as tokens
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