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Climate Change

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by

Jordan French

on 12 December 2014

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Transcript of Climate Change

Since 1901, the annual temperature in the world have changed.
Impacts of
higher temperatures
on the Earth's polar regions are...
In recent years, the amount of summer ice in the Arctic Ocean was the smallest it's been. As the ice gets smaller, it also gets thinner.
What is happening now?
The Arctic Ocean is covered in ice. As the air and water is warmer, the ice will melt and will get smaller.
At the last 50 years, the rate of glaciers, melting up around the world, is faster. For instance, glaciers have shrunk dramatically in Alaska and other parts of America.
What is happening now?
What is Rising Sea Level?
Rising Sea Level
Climate Change
by Jordan and Ivan
less snowpack
permafrost thawing

melting glaciers
shrinking sea ice
leads to...
rising sea level

... these are signs of climate change.
Melting Glaciers
Mostly, permafrost is located in higher latitudes, such as in and around the Arctic and Antarctic regions.
Permafrost Thawing...
Signs of Climate Change
Effects of Climate Change on people include...
What should I do to prevent
Climate Change?
What is a permafrost?
A permafrost (permanent frozen land) is a thick layer of soil or rock that remains frozen throughout the year.
What is happening now?
Over the past 50 years, Alaska's annual temperature have risen with an average of 1.8°C, while by 3.5°C, the winters are warmer. Since the 1970s, the ground temperatures have risen throughout Alaska. As a result, permafrost had thawed in many places in Alaska.
If we continue on a high-emissions path, temperatures in Alaska are expected to increase by 4.4°C to 7.2°C by around 2100. With this said, higher temperature means permafrost will keep thawing.
The map shows the change of permafrost in Alaska's Seward Peninsula by 2100...
Why does it matter?
We should be concern about permafrost because it has a lot of carbon trapped inside. When permafrost thaws, carbon is released; and forms into methane to the atmosphere. This will lead to more change in climate, because methane, a powerful greenhouse gas, will warm up the Earth more.
What is happening now?
Less Snowpack
Snowpack in many places like North America, Europe and Asia is melting faster than it used to.
This picture shows the difference between 1970 to 2004 in how long the snow stays on the ground in the spring in the northern hemisphere.
What is a snowpack?
A snowpack is the amount of ice and snow that builds up on the ground during winter.
Shrinking Sea Ice
Since the 1970s, scientists started using satellites to measure the part of ice in the Arctic.
1979
2012
Effects of Thawing Permafrost
Effects of Less Snowpack
Effects of Shrinking Sea Ice
Effects of Rising Sea Level
The land above the permafrost will change shape or sink, if permafrost melts. As the land sinks, it could damage buildings, homes and other infrastructures.
In this picture, the trees of a forest are leaning and falling over because the permafrost underneath is melting.
Many animals made Arctic, a place for their home. As the temperature increases, the ice gets smaller; animals that live in cold places, wouldn't be able to live in the Arctic, anymore. This affects the ecosystem.
In the Arctic, native people need these animals for their source of food.
If the sea ice melted, animals, that live there, will die. This causes shortage of food for the native people.
Snowpack melts on late spring and early summer. As it melts, it provides freshwater for rivers and streams. Also, it fills reservoirs that supply drinking water to cities and towns.
As of now, snowpack is melting earlier on the spring than it used to. With less snowpack (due to increase in temp.) and earlier melting of snow, it reduces the amount of flowing water for drinking.
Snowpack is very important for snowboarding and skiing. With decreasing snowpack, people who owns ski resorts must have to prepare themselves as they may lose their business.
As glaciers and the giant ice sheets on Greenland and Antarctica melt, they add more water into the ocean, which causes sea level to rise.
Rising sea levels is caused by global
warming, melting glaciers, ice caps and
ice sheets adding water to the world's
oceans. As the temperature goes up, ice
trapped on land melts and sea levels
rises. This is bad because people who
live around oceans will experience
constant flooding.
What will happen in the future ?
If this keeps up we will face constant flooding,
high tides, storm surges, and coastal infrastructures.
risk of infrastructures and forests
water supplies and recreation
shortage of food and ecosystem
coastal areas and recreation
Rising sea level can affect coastal areas, recreation, and ecosystems. As the sea level rise, it is a threat to people who live near the ocean. This could also do damage to the ecosystem, such as mangrove forests and coral reefs.
If sea levels rose by a meter, 15% of Egypt's farmland would disappear.

New York City is home to nearly 20 million people. A large amount of global business takes place in here. The city's shoreline will change, if sea level rise.

Bangladesh's coast is low-lying. A meter rise in sea level would destroy half the country's rice fields.

and many more...
The places that will be affected when sea level rise...
Recreation will be affected...
The rising of sea level increase the erosion rate. As a result, the beach will have less space.
Reducing my carbon footprint...
3 R's: Reduce, Reuse, Recycle
Turn off the water when not using.
Turn off electronic appliances when not using.
Walk or bike to school.
Plant trees.
Trees help slow down climate change by absorbing carbon dioxide.
"Climate Change video"
During the summertime, trees provide good shade which cools down houses, schools and other buildings. This reduces our need for air conditioning.
What is happening?
The sea level rose by nearly 7 inches worldwide, from 1870 to 2010.
Risk of Infrastructure
Example:
In this picture, the permafrost underneath is thawing. As a result, the house is leaning due to sinking.
Effects of Thawing Permafrost
Ecosystem
Water Supplies
Effects of Less Snowpack
Recreation
Effects of Shrinking Sea Ice
Aboriginal's food source
Ecosystem
Wetland Ecosystem
This map shows how rising sea level threatens wetlands along the U.S. Mid-Atlantic Coast. The more vulnerable a wetland is, the more likely it will become submerged (and disappear) as sea level rises in the future.
Be a part of the solution!
Full transcript