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Transcript of NUTRIENTS
Provides the body's most important source of energy
High Quality Fuel - Takes little effort to release its energy
2 Types of Carbohydrates; Complex & Simple
Foods containing complex carbs; pasta, wheat, corn, veggies, fruit, beans, and grains
Foods containing simple carbs; candy, soft drinks, cake and cookies
Includes sugars such as glucose, fructose, and sucrose
Limit how many simple carbs consumed; lots of calories, no vitamins or minerals
~50% of your diet should come from complex carbohydrates
Foods with complex carbs also provide the body with fiber
Proteins are made up of amino acids that the body uses to make skin, muscle & Bone
The body requires 20 amino acids for good health (11 produced within the body itself, remaining 9 called essential amino acids).
The body can NOT store amino acids, so it is important to consume protein almost daily
Proteins; Complete vs. Incomplete
Complete Proteins - Food that supplies all 9 essential amino acids
Almost all proteins from animal sources are complete, while plant protein sources are often incomplete.
Foods with Protein
People who do not eat animal protein can combine sources of plant proteins to be sure they get the essential amino acids.
example: Beans and rice, a common food throughout the world, form a complete protein when eaten together
~10-15% of your calories should come from proteins; most Americans eat more protein than the body needs
There is NO evidence that eating excessive amounts of protein will build more or stronger muscles.
Foods high in protein are typically also high in fats which may contribute to weight gain, hypertension, high cholesterol, heart disease, and diabetes.
If you do not get enough proteins from your food =
may cause insufficient development of bones and muscles, and problems related to skin tone
Healthy skin & hair
Normal growth & nerve function
The production of certain hormones
The bodies ability to absorb certain vitamins during digestion
Insulates against cold
Provides energy for muscles
Provides a later of padding between the skin & muscles
Protects internal organs
A trace of fat is found in almost all foods
Foods with a significant fat content include; Meat, Fish, Dairy Products, Nuts & Chocolate
Fat can be burned as energy when the body does not have enough carbohydrates stored.
The level of the energy produced from fat is lower than that produced by carbohydrates.
Recommendation for Fat Consumption
Only 20-30% of your calories should come from fats
The two main types of potentially helpful dietary fat: Monounsaturated & Polyunsaturated Fat.
(Avoid) Trans Fats - created in an industrial process that adds hydrogen to liquid vegetable oils to make them more solid. Another name for trans fats is “partially hydrogenated oils."
Monounsaturated fat. This is a type of fat found in a variety of foods and oils. Studies show that eating foods rich in monounsaturated fats (MUFAs) improves blood cholesterol levels, which can decrease your risk of heart disease, may benefit insulin levels and blood sugar control, which can be especially helpful if you have type 2 diabetes.
Polyunsaturated fat. This is a type of fat found mostly in plant-based foods and oils. Evidence shows that eating foods rich in polyunsaturated fats (PUFAs) improves blood cholesterol levels, which can decrease your risk of heart disease, may also help decrease the risk of type 2 diabetes. One type of polyunsaturated fat, omega-3 fatty acids, may be especially beneficial to your heart. Omega-3s, found in some types of fatty fish, appear to decrease the risk of coronary artery disease. They may also protect against irregular heartbeats and help lower blood pressure levels.
Help regulate metabolism
Important for maintenance of body structures
Food & Minerals
Common minerals include calcium, sodium, potassium, iron, iodine and zince
Minerals are found in almost all foods - Veggies, furits & grain products are particularly good sources of minerals.
A balanced diet with a variety of foods can help prevent mineral deficiency problems.
Too Much vs. Too Little
Having too few minerals can affect all body systems; the effects on the body are very specific and directly related to the type of mineral missing from the diet.
Example: Not getting enough calcium restricts the proper development of bones and results in brittle bones later in life
Too many minerals in your diet may be harmful.
Example: High levels of phosphates (found in carbonated sodas) interferes with calcium metabolism and may weaken your bones.
Vitamins are compounds that help regulate body processes such as;
Vitamins are found in all food groups
Common sources of vitamins are fruits & veggies
Where to Find Vitamins
Sources for Vitamins A-D
Vitamins A & B - Green leafy & yellow veggies are especially good sources
Vitamin C - Oranges, grapefruit, lemons, limes, green chilies are excellent sources
Vitamin D - Exposure to sunlight
Vitamin deficiency can cause a wide range of health problems including;
Poor regulation of internal body processes
The body not being able to produce high levels of energy
Assists in digestion & respiration
Helps to carry nutrients and oxygen throughout the body
Allows the body to;
-use water water-soluble vitamins
-carry oxygen in the blood
-regulate body temperature
The body loses about 1 quart of water each day.
It is recommended to drink 8 or more glasses of water daily.
Not drinking enough water can compromise all of the body's systems
When water deficiency is severe, the body systems shut down and death occurs.
Most people do not drink enough water and drinking too much water causes few problems
Some experts believe that large amounts of water may dilute and wash water soluble vitamins from the body.
Analyze your dietary intake of nutrients;
What nutrients might you be deficient in? Why?
What foods could you consume in order to address your nutrient deficiency?
What nutrient(s) might you be consuming too much of? Why?
Based on what you have learned about nutrients, how has your viewpoint about food changed?
6 Essential Nutrients
Fats, Proteins, Carbohydrates, Vitamins, Minerals, Water
Referred to as essential because your body can not produce them in adequate amounts to meet the needs of the body
Fats, Proteins, & Carbohydrates provide your body with fuel/energy.