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Transcript of CUBA
La Historia de Cuba
Cuba was first inhabited by Native American Indians
It was discovered by Christopher Columbus as he sailed the ocean blue in 1492!!
The first slaves were brought in by the Spanish in 1868.
Slavery was not abolished until 1886.
Cuba was a territory of Spain until the United States ceded it in 1898.
Cuba was ruled by a U.S. supported dictator, General Fulgengio Bautista
His regime was infamous for corruption, greed and decadence.
Before the revolution, Cuba was considered a "playground" for the rich, including U.S mobsters
Group Members: Joanna Camacho, M. Melissa Clark-White, Manpreet Singh, Melissa Zelaya
In 1952, Fidel Castro and Che Guevarra led a revolution
This war lasted 7 years
Jan 1st, 1959- Che and Fidel overthrow Bautista
Fidel is elected president- 1976
greatest prides is its health care system because their gov’t promotes the country’s
Cost of healthcare in
$400 or less
a year per person compared to
20 times higher
is considered a
basic human right
for all citizens in Cuba
Cuba aligned itself with the Soviet Union and their communist policies.
Cuba became a Communist state
, primary care, services in the community, and active participation of citizens.
to treat patients for their illnesses!
also assess the patient for any other health concerns on their home visits in order to
Cuban physicians go above and beyond by doing physical exams of everyone in the home of the patient and inspect living conditions too!
Estructura de Gobierno
Cuba is a one-party Communist state; the Cuban Communist party (PCC) is the only legal political party.
The country is currently governed under the constitution of 1976.
The government was led by Fidel Castro, who was prime minister from 1959 until the post was abolished in 1976 and became president of the Council of State and president of the Council of Ministers in 1976.
(The office of president is both head of state and head of government.)
A presidential term is 5 years
election is only for formality
Cuba’s current president is Raul Castro, Fidel’s brother
Legislative authority resides in the National Assembly of People's Power.
The 609 assembly seats are filled by direct election from selected candidate lists; members serve for five-year terms.
Administratively, Cuba is divided into 15 provinces and the special municipality of the Isle of Youth.
further assess the patients for additional health concerns in order to
Cuban Gov't closely monitors medical employment to ensure:
All Cuban citizens have access to care
Each Doctor has no more than 1,100 patients
Cuba has no shortage of Doctors and Nurses; Doctors per person is twice as higher than the U.S.
It is the highest doctor-patient ratio in the World.
In 2000, the United Nations drew up goals committing world leaders to fight for a better world. These goals became known as the "UN Millineum Development Goals" (MDG). Because of the Revolution in 1959, Cuba was already at an advantage and is one of the nations to have met the majority of the MDG, which the UN has set for international fulfillment by 2015.
The eight MDG proposals:
• Eradicating extreme poverty and hunger
• Achieving universal elementary education
• Promoting gender equality and women’s autonomy
• Reducing infant mortality
• Improving maternal health
• Combating HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases
• Guaranteeing environmental sustainability
• Develop a global partnership for development
Built on three main principles: self-discipline, hard work and love of country.
• Year-long effort to abolish illiteracy in Cuba
• Sent “literacy brigades” into the countryside to build schools, train new educators, and teach the illiterate
• Literacy Brigades consisted of volunteers, children as young as 8 years old.
• Most teachers have masters degrees
• Education at every level is free no matter socio-economic status
• School meals and uniforms are free
• Free morning and after school child care
• Mobile teachers available if students are unable to attend
• Primary Education : Children ages 6 to 16, 8am-4:30 pm
• Secondary Education : High School 16 +, Double sessions
Children, Youth and Family
• Law Prohibits teaching beliefs that go against communism. Parents who violate this code face imprisonment
• Pre- University Education, Technical/ Professional Training
• Committee for the Defense of the Revolution: Before taking entrance exams this Committee “approves” or “disapproves” a student’s entrance to university studies depending on his or her political standing
• Students with a “poor” political standing may find themselves “blacklisted” from furthering their education
• Education may be free, but higher education is competitive
• Teachers are not making enough $$ and seek higher paying jobs
• Economy: Over-educated, does not have economy to sustain jobs
• YO SI PUEDO: Literacy Program : teach adults to read and write , used in Bolivia, Venezuela, Canada, Australia
• Women Empowerment, Independence
As part of American Assoc of University Women's (AAUW) International Series on Culture and Gender Roles, a delegation of 48 members (teams of prof for conducting research) traveled to Cuba in 2010 for six days.
Purpose: examine gender equality in Cuba & meet citizens to gather understanding of the roles of women in Cuban society.
Research issues addressed the following:
What are the roles of women in Cuba?
What is the relative status of women and men in Cuba?
How has Cuban women's education affected their opportunities and lifestyles?
The Status of Women in Cuba
AAUW delegates met w/women leaders in different fields:
Leaders/Reps from Federation of Cuban Women (FMC) & National Assembly (Parliament)
Director of National Center for Sex Education and Research = Mariela Castro Espin
Leaders at University of Havana
Leaders/Members National Assoc of Writers and Artists of Cuba, etc
Women leaders explained that in reality, Cuban women and girls have a long way to go before achieving full equity. For ex, Cuban law grants women and men equal rights & responsibilities in raising children, maintaining home, & pursuing career. However, traditional sexist behavior and gender stereotypes persist.
The struggle to balance work and home is not unlike what women in the US face. However in Cuba, women lack
the basic, everyday items.
Equality for Cuban Women
Women benefit from universal access to work
in all fields and the laws requiring equal pay have long been codified.
Despite the law & significant progress, women still face obstacles in achieving equality in employment.
the minority in traditional
male fields, although
progress is being made.
Women enjoy the same access to education
as men and play a prominent role in
they can go as far as they wish (limited to performance on test)
make up 80% of university students & nearly 68% of university graduates
In US, 57% of women are in 4
yr institutions, and 57% earned Bachelor's in 2008.
Women remain underrepresented in traditionally
male fields of study.
Women played a big role in the 1961 campaign
to eradicate illiteracy.
Today, illiteracy rate up 99% similar to the US
Violence Against Women
Cuba does not have a separate law addressing DV, & it remains a pressing social issue.
does not recognize dv as distinct category of violence but it does prohibit threats & inflicting injuries.
According to US Dept of State, human rights advocates report that violence against women is a problem in Cuba & police often do not act on cases of dv.
Sexuality & Reproductive Rights
Cuban laws contain many women-beneficial policies & women are active in forging new policies.
Ex: Reproductive choice is nested within the penal code
Generous maternity & parental leave policy that has developed over time from work of women's organizations.
Abortions performed outside the national healthcare system are illegal
Sex education is taught in all Cuban schools
Groups are working to overcome homophobia in Cuban society
After the communist revolution of 1959, the government of Cuba restricted religious practice; this led to persecution of many Catholics at universities and in workplaces.
Recently the government recognized the right of citizens to profess and practice any religious belief within the framework of respect for the law.
Cuba has a variety of religions!
Catholicism is the majority religon consisting of 60 % of the population
20% is a mixutre of Afro-cuban religions
20% other (Islam, other denomominations of Christianity.
Cuba has a 99.8 literacy rate for both men and women
Alfabetización, Bellas Artes, y musica
El mumbo, La Rumba, and the Cha Cha Cha
Ballet and Baseball
2011. Gender equality and the role of women in cuban society. AAUW. Retrieved from http://www.aauw.org/files/2013/01/Cuba_whitepaper.pdf
Central Intelligence Agency. Central Intelligence Agency, n.d. Web. 24 Feb. 2014.
Cuban healthcare is at a major disadvantage when it comes to it's pharmaceutical healthcare.
"Geography." Infoplease. Infoplease, n.d. Web. 25 Feb. 2014.
Resources are limited so patients are treated with whatever is available.
A simple infection can go untreated because of the lack of basic medications.
The hospital may not have the right antibiotics to treat chronic illnesses.
although prohibited by law, sexual harassment continues to be a problem in the workplace
Federation of Cuban Women/FMC is working to prevent prostitution
Because of U.S. policies!
Cubans and their economy suffer due to the U.S. Embargo
Blockade of U.S. products, (mainly medical supplies that the Cubans were dependent on because of the cheaper import costs), became a "virtual world-wide blockade" because all other nations were prohibited by the U.S. to trade any import with Cuba that was comprised of any U.S. part.
Although women enjoy equal access to work
a glass ceiling exists.
Most antibiotics are produced under American patents, so these are included in the embargo.
United Nations have voted U.S. to be in violation of Article 25 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights that states, everyone has the right to the "health and well being of himself and his family, including...medical care and necessary social services".
Cuban exports of diagnostic equipment and pharmaceuticals earned Cuba $120 million in 1995
Health tourism is a chain of private hospitals that provide paid services to foreigners only (over $25 million dollars in 1995). Services include treatments for eye and skin diseases, open heart surgeries, Parkinson’s disease, kidney transplants, neurological disorders, and countless others
System of "health tourism" helps finance the free service to their own citizens, the expenses of medical research, and so forth.
Developed their on research industry.
So why is that?
We love you Che!
Total expenditure on health per capita 430
Total expenditure on health as % of GDP 10.0
Life expectancy at birth: male 76
Expanded to 284 hospitals, 440 clinics, 11 research institutes and 15 medical colleges