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Copy of Classification

Introduction to biological classification systems

Carolyn Sorrell

on 7 January 2013

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Transcript of Copy of Classification

The need for systems Binomial Nomenclature The Linnaean System Classification Why do scientists classify living organisms? There are millions of species in the world! We need some way to organize all of the world's species. Taxonomy is the science of naming and classifying organisms. Biologists use taxonomic systems
to organize their knowledge of organisms.
These systems attempt to provide consistent ways to name and categorize organisms. Organisms are named during classification.
Carl Linnaeus was a Swedish biologist who developed a system of naming in the 1750s that is still used today because it is both simple and consistent. Linnaeus' system is a two-word system called
binomial nomenclature (bi=2, nom = system, clatur =naming). Naming Rules:

1. All scientific names for species are made up of two Latin or Latin-like terms.

2. Latin is used so there won't be any confusion about the species (versus common names).

3. The two parts of the name include the genus name followed by the species identifier.

4. The two names are underlined or capitalized. Examples: Linnaeus also developed a system of classification.
In this system:
Organisms are grouped according to similarities in their form and structure.
The system is broken down into levels.
Each level is called a taxon (taxa, plural), which is a general term for a large biological group. The modern system:

8 basic levels
Domain is the broadest taxa, so it includes the most animals.
Species is the most specific taxa. Example: Taxonomy Domains
-most inclusive grouping
-Archea- prokaryotic, cell wall
w/o peptidoglycan, extremophiles
-Bacteria- prokaryotic, cell wall with
-Eukarya- eukaryotic, some with cell
walls and some without Kingdoms 2nd most inclusive
The six include:
Eubacteria, Archaebacteria,
Protista, Fungi, Plantae, Animalia Phylum- third most inclusive in which
organisms share important characteristics Class- 4th most inclusive
similar orders are grouped into
the same class Order- 5th most inclusive
similar families are grouped together Family- 6th most inclusive
similar genuses are grouped
together Genus- 2nd most exclusive group
similar species are grouped together Species- most exclusive group Arrange the items listed into different groups and give each group a title indicating what they have in common.
(2 groups)German shepherd, great dane, parrot, irish setter, canary, husky, robin, pigeon
(3 groups)steak, football, sausage, chair, table, bacon, sofa, baseball bat, ham, cleats, bookcase

Look at the following list: mare, trout, parrot, quarterhorse, woodpecker, spaniel, goldfish, great dane, eagle, bass, beagle, hawk, stallion, dalmation, shark
Name two groups you can divide them into.
Name Three groups you can divide them into.
Name four groups you can divide them into
Dumb Kings Play Cards
On Fat Green Stools
Domain, Kingdom, Phylum,
Class, Order, Family Genus
Species Write then Answer the
1. What is the science of classifying
2. What is the naming system that
Linneaus came up with?
3. Why is scientific naming necessary? Archebacteria
Prokaryotic, heterotrophic, extremophiles, single-celled organisms.
Prokaryotic, hetero or autotrophic, single-celled organisms.
Eukaryotic, autotrophic, multicelled organisms. Fungi
Eukaryotic, heterotrophic, uni or multicellular organisms.
Eukaryotic, uni or multicellular (colonies), auto or heterotrophic organisms.
Eukaryotic, heterotrophic, multicellular organisms.
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