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Transcript of Nigeria
By: Lyndsey Barnes, Isaiah Cole, and Blakely Philbeck
Policymaking and Implementation
Interest Articulation and Interest Aggregation
Nigeria's future holds...
Nigeria has the population and resources to be a regional power.
ECOWAS created free trade zones, which is promoting economic integration for the country.
Nigeria has closer economic ties with France.
The US and Britain are determined to condemn military rulers and promote democracy in Nigeria.
Nigeria's population is urbanizing rapidly and because of this the need for urban infastructure is high.
Malaria and disease are permitting growth of the Nigerian population.
The Nok people lived in Nigeria between the 4th century B.C. and the second century A.D.
Divided into states which can be linked to the modern day ethnic groups
In the 16th century, the Songhai Empire reached its highest point and stretched from the Senegai and Gambia rivers in the west.
During this time, the Sayfawa Dynasty of Borno was assembled and conquered cities that weren't under Songhai rule.
European Slave Trade
By 1471 Portuguese ships had entered the west African Coast, but their monopoly on West African trade was stopped by the naval powers of the Netherlands.
North and South were very different. North had been experiencing a difficult century of political insecurity
The South had been swept up in the transatiantic slave trade.
By 1800, Oyo, a constitutional monarchy governed SW Nigeria and the Aro pushed SE Nigeria into a confederation.
In 1804 - 1808 the Islamic Holy War of Usman dan Fodio established the Sokoto Caliphate -loose confederation of emirates.
In 1807 Britain declared the transatiantic slave trade to be illegal.
Nigeria's last Constitution was created in 1999 because the Head of State at that time, General Abdulsalami Abubakar, felt the need to make a new body of laws to serve as the country's supreme document.
It provides for an Executive, Legislative, and Judicial branch of government.
In 1971 Nigeria joined the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries and formed the Nigerian National Oil Corporation to get involved in oil production.
The sale of oil by the Nigerian govt came to provide the greater part of the federal govt's revenues.
Nigeria is a rentier state depending largely on oil.
Nigeria has potential to be rich, but they're still poor because when money comes in from oil, only the people who are into politics benefit from it. They use the money for personal reasons instead of making the country for everyone.
The census issue- the amount of corruption and lies that take place when the census is taken is a big problem and is affecting the distribution of resources to the people. People will lie about how many people live with them to get more resources.
The political culture of Nigeria is very complex.
It is this way because of the ethnic identities and different religions of the Nigerian people.
Ethnic Identities: Hausa-Fulani
The Hausa-Fulani live in the northern half of the country.
29% of Hausas live in the northern part of the country.
Many Hausas engage in subsistence agriculture and live in rural villages.
Majority of Hausas are Muslim.
The area where the Hausas live is often referred to as "Hausaland"
Turnout in elections are 40-60%, and an explanation for this is the patron-client networks.
Interest in elections declined during civilian rule.
Violence is used by some political parties to scare people into voting. These people are called political party "thugs".
Violence plays a huge role in politics. The greatest example of this was the Biafran Civil War.
Parties and Elections
Interests are articulated by organized interest groups, such as trade unions or religious bodies.
They are also articulated by informal channels of participation through people and patron-client networks (clientelism).
Also interests can be articulated by groups that use scare tactics to pressure people into voting or supporting what they want. (Kaduna Mafia)
Interest Articulation: Ethnic and Religious Associations
In the North, individual ties are stronger so ethnic and religious associations dont have that much of an influence.
One very significant ethnic association now is the Movement for the Survival of the Ogoni People, and this group speaks for the Ogoni people whose land has been occupied by Shell oil drilling rigs.
Religious institutions are very important interest articulators but they have been limited because of conflict between Christians and Muslims.
Based on Jim Harvey's speech structures
Independence & Civil War
By an act of British Parliament, Nigeria became an indepednet country within the Commonwealth on October 1, 1960.
Became a republic. Had a president elected to 5 year terms by joint sessions of parliament.
Nnamdi Azikiwe- Republics 1st president
Nations leadership in the decades following independence was determined by coup, not election, and military, rather than civilian government.
May 30th, 1967 Colonel Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu proclaimed the Independent Republic of Biatra.
In January, 1970 Biafran resistance collapsed. 1-3 million people died from hostilities, disease, starvation, and the economy was shattered.
Coups & Military Government
Yakubu Gowon came to power in 1966 coup, and in March 1967 the Supreme Military Council was created.
IN 1972 Gowon lifted the ban on politcal activity that had been in force since 1666 to permit a discussion about a new constitution.
Gowon was deposed in a military coup in July 1975
His succesor, Murtala Ramat Muhammad was assinated in February 1976.
Muhammad's succesor was Olusegun Obasanjo. In 1979 under his leadership, Nigeria adopted a constitution based off of the U.S.As constitution
The Second Republic
The presidential succession from Obasanjo to a civilan, President Alhaji Shehu Shagari, 1st peaceful transfer of power since independence.
Weaknesses best the 2nd Republic
The coalition wasn't strong
Lack of cooperation between the NPN dominated federal government and the 12 states controlled by opposition parties
Oil boom ended in mid 1981
Return to Military Rule
On December 31st 1983, the military seized power once again because of the lack of confidence in the civilian regime.
The economy was chaos.
In August of 1985 Babangida removed Buhari from power.
In November of 1993 Abacha took power and served as military dictator until his death in 1998.
Transition to Civilian Government
Upon Abacha's death, Abubakar took over in June of 1998.
Local elections were held in December, state legislative elections followed in January, and federal and presidential elections completed the transition in February.
Political Participation and Recruitment
The highest lawmaking body is the National Assembly, which is bicameral.
The upper house is known as the Senate, and the lower house is known as the House of Representatives.
The Senate is headed by a Senate President, and it has 109 members.
The House of Representatives is headed by the Speaker of the House and it has 360 members.
The Executive Branch
The Government is headed by an elected President who also serves as the Head of State, the Chief Executive of the Federation and the Commander-In-Chief of the Armed Forces.
The current present of Nigeria is Goodluck Jonothan.
Some of his duties include: being the ceremonial head of Nigerian govt, taking charge and providing for the military, appointing ministers, and sharing the responsibilities of making laws with the National Assembly.
The President is assisted by a Vice President.
In 1885 at the Berlin Conference- the principal known as the "dual mandate" was created saying that Africa and Britain would both benefit from giving Britain free access to Africa for trade, and Africa would get Benefits of Europes civilizing mission.
Fredrick Lugard- Commissioner of the Protectorate of Northern Nigeria (1900) - was successful because of his policy of indirect rule, governed protectorate through previously defeated rulers.
Hugh Clifford (1919-1925) restricted power of northern emirs by scaling back indirect rule
British colonialism created Nigeria
Nigeria is a Federal Republic made up of 37 States
(36 states and 1 territory)
The Legislative Branch
The Vice President
The VP is nominated by the presidential candidate.
The winning Presidential candidate's VP nomination determines who is VP.
The VP assumes office of President if the President dies or cannot finish the term.
The Judicial Branch
The Judicial Branch is in charge of interpreting the Constitution.
The Nigerian Constitution gives the Judicial Branch independence from the other two branches.
The Judical Branch has a Supreme Court, a Court of Appeal, and Federal High Courts.
The lower courts are called the Magistrate, Customary, and Alkali.
These courts have original and appellate jurisdictions.
The country's ethnic, regional and religious divisions have intensified over recent years making decision making more difficult.
Elections are of poor quality and are usually corrupt.
The government isnt able to provide basic human needs to the people because of the failure of democracy.
This all is a big contributor to violence in Nigeria.
Ethnic Identities: Igbo(Ibo)
The Igbo mainly live in the southeastern part of the country.
The Igbo make up 18% of the population and they're Christian.
Most of the region is developed for market agriculture, so the Igbo produce palm products, rice, and yams.
Igbo officers led the first military coup in 1966 and many were killed.
The three year civil war ended in the defeat of Biafra in 1970, causing mistrust between the Igbo and other Nigerians.
Ethnic Identities: Yoruba
The Yoruba live mostly in the southwestern part of Nigeria, and also in the formal capital city of Lagos.
Grew cocoa and palm products as exports in the colonial period.
They are a mix of Christians and Muslims.
They make up 21% of the population.
The support for democracy is high in Nigeria: 72%
Political Role of Women
In the Igbo and Yoruba tribes, there are "dual-sex" systems, which are parallel systems of political and social organization for men and women.
In the northern Hausa-Fulani tribe, Islam greatly restricts the role of women. They voted for the first time in 1979.
Women vote in pretty equal numbers with men but are generally underrepresented in politics.
Men still hold 905 of all elected and appointed positions.
In Nigeria, people's political ideologies and influences come from the family, schools, the mass media, and the state.
The family is the most important agent of political socialization in Nigeria.
Most Nigerians grow up in polygamous families.
Men who hold office in a church are pressured to practice monogamy.
The large families that polygamy allows provides for great political support for a candidate, which is also the model for clientist relationships.
Schools are the second most important agent of political socialization in Nigeria.
Nigerians expect formal education from the government.
Broad consensus that primary education should be free and universal.
In 1948 there was only one university and in 1962 there was five.
The boom of oil in the 1970's helped expand secondary and postsecondary schools.
Today there are 104 universities.
Enrollment of girls is only 45%
The Mass Media
Nigeria has a politically independent press.
Political effect of the press is limited because 1/3 of the adults in Nigeria are illiterate.
Only 25% of Nigerians get their news from newspapers, but 57% are interested in public affairs.
Most Nigerians get their news from radio and television.
Authoritarian regimes imposed restrictions on media, and they issued 21 decrees between 1966 and 1995 limiting press freedoms.
The 1999 Constitution guarantees broad freedom for the media, but they have to be accredited by a government-run media council.
Rural residents are much more educated.
For those with education, contact with the government is simple.
Nigerians most often get what they expect from government officials.
There are approximately 30 political parties in Nigeria.
The political party that currently holds power is the People's Democratic Party.
Interest Articulation: Associational Groups
Associational groups are more common in the industrialized areas of Nigeria.
Trade unions play a big role in Nigerian politics through the Nigerian Labor Congress.
Petroleum workers have potential for great political influence, as demonstrated in the 1994 strike actions by the National Union of Petroleum and Gas Workers.
Another important group is the Nigerian Union of Local Government Employees because of their immediate impact on the government.
Professional organizations, like the Nigerian Bar Association, get involved with politics when the issues concern them directly.
Schools and Universities are also important.
Interest Articulation: Nonassociational Groups
A famous nonassociational group is the Kaduna Mafia.
They are said to have strong influence over the military and politics.
The military is also an important interest articulator.
Interest Articulation: Patron- Client Networks
Powerful Nigerian political figures are able to mobilize support through personal connections.
Patronage is very common in Nigerian politics.
Constraints are imposed on Nigerian decision making by the outside world in the World-Bank supported Structural Adjustment Program.
Between 1983 and 1999 joining the military was the regular path to political power.
Now, if you attend and graduate from universities is the best way to obtain political power. The more educated are more likely to succeed.
House of Representatives
Biafran Civil War
Constitution of 1999
October 1st, 1960
Peoples Democratic Party
June 12, 1993
Ranked 36 in the world
Won gold in 1996 at Summer Olympics
Best finish in World Cup: Round of 16
Qualified for the 2014 World Cup