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Argument

Introduction, Thesis, Warrants, Helpful Hints/Worksheets, Possible Graphic organizers, Appeals, Citations, Faulty Logic
by

James Bunker

on 30 March 2014

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Transcript of Argument

Setting the Tone: Your Introductory Paragraph
Think of your introduction paragraph like a funnel.

1) First grab your readers' attention with a general statement about your topic.

2) Then give your reader a brief explanation (2-5 sentences) of what you will be explaining about your topic.

3) End your introduction with a strong statement/claim that tells your reader what you intend to prove to them about your topic.
Attention Grabbing Opening
Brief Explanation of topic
THESIS!
Your topic tells your reader what you are talking about.
Example: I will discuss year-round school policies.
-This is not a thesis. This is only a topic
-Why? Because your thesis should always be a statement that demands PROOF
Your thesis should take a STAND!
Once stating your thesis statement, the rest of your paper should be to
convince your reader why your opinion is true.
Additionally, your thesis
prepares
your reader for the
facts
that will
prove
your opinion about your topic to be true.
Your thesis should be an arguable opinion -NOT a fact.
What a thesis statement is....
the sentence (or two) that answers your reader's biggest question
Before trying to decide on a thesis, gather all of the information available on your topic!
-How can you have an educated opinion about something that you know little about?

-The more that you know about your topic, the easier it will be to form a provable opinion (thesis) about it.

-It is easier to write a thesis statement that explains what you have found in your research, than to find research that explains what you have written in your thesis!

-You want the opinion that your thesis states to be provable by facts that you have gathered. If you gather the facts first, you KNOW that it can be proven!
because....
Your Thesis and Your Topic are NOT the same.
You must choose your topic before beginning your research.
REMEMBER:
Once you have gathered your information, Ask Yourself a Few Questions:
What is the most important thought I have about my topic?
What has my research shown me about my topic?
What would my reader want to know about my topic?
What will be the point of my paper?
Your first draft of your thesis will be considered a
working thesis
To turn your Working Thesis into a Final Thesis Statement, compare it to the requirements for a strong thesis statement:
Family may mean different things to different people, but it is an important part of every culture
1. As in many countries, family has a huge impact on American culture.

2. The strength of the family unit impacts each individual regardless of their society.
Possible Revisions To Make The Broad Statement More Specific:
This is more narrow because we have reduced it to one specific culture.
This is more narrow because family is reduced to the family’s strength and society is reduced to the individual.
In Conclusion....
1. Start off with your TOPIC!

2. Before trying to decide on a thesis, gather all of the information available on your topic!
Once you have gathered your information,

Ask Yourself a Few Questions:





4.Use your answers to write a Working Thesis.

5. Turn your Working Thesis into a Final Thesis Statement by comparing it to the requirements for a strong thesis statement:

Is it too broad? Is it too narrow? Is it too vague?
-What is the most important thought that I have about my topic?
-What has my research shown me about my topic?
-What would my reader want to know about my topic?
-What will be the POINT of my paper?
Homework:
Due Wednesday, 9/5
1. Your working thesis statement
2. Worksheet reviewing thesis statements
a short statement, usually one sentence, that summarizes the main point or claim of an essay, research paper, etc., and is developed, supported, and explained in the text by means of examples and evidence.
What is a thesis statement?
Attention Grabber/ "Hook"-Attention-getting device—choose any one or any combination of the following:
Writing an introduction
1. Question-
a. rhetorical
b. regular
*Do not ask a yes or no question; You can ask a “why” question which will lead to your thesis…this keeps the reader engaged!*
2. Shocking facts or statistics
a. Facts—that which is known to be true
b. Statistics—number facts
Example: "The Black Widow spider's bite can cause coma and even death. The African Black Mamba can kill a man with one bite. But there's an even deadlier predator: cigarettes, produced by big tobacco companies, kill someone every 6 seconds. Don't be big tobacco's next victim."
3. Anecdote—interesting little story; purpose(s) to bring cheer, reminisce, caution, persuade or inspire
a. humorous
b. joke
c. inspirational
Example: The Winner is always a part of the answer; The Loser is always a part of the problem.”
4. Quotation—
a. can be from book/play/poem
b. can be from another source on the same theme as topic
Examples:
1)“Good people do not need laws to tell them to act responsibly, while bad people will find a way around the laws.”
2)“He who commits injustice is ever made more wretched than he who suffers it.”
3)See Moodle document “Hooks” for more examples.
5. Definition (not from the dictionary)
a. own words…Make sure to read two or three different ones before writing
Example: Violence is defined as a behavior or destructive force, which causes harm to another person
1)Violence- Behavior involving physical force intended to hurt, damage, or kill someone or something.
2)Strength of emotion or an unpleasant or destructive natural force.
6. Suspense builder—sets an interesting scene but does not finish the story
7. Descriptive example
8. Set up a situation or a scenario
Graphic Organizer Options
Helpful Hints
Your thesis tells your reader your position on your topic.
Example: Schools should have a year-round program, because the retention of knowledge will be greater, the drop-out rate will be lower, and overall behavior management issues will lessen.
-This is a thesis! Write down 3 reasons why it is a "good" example.
Claim/Argument
Reason 1
Reason 2
Reason 3
Conjunctions- create cohesion
Thesis outline:
Claim
,
transition (conjunction),
Reason 1
,
Reason 2,
transition,

Reason 3
Transitions
The Dos
Sentence Starters
Thesis Statement
Faulty Logic
Page or Paragraph Numbers
If your source is electronic, you do not need to include the page numbers, but your teacher may ask you to include the paragraph number.
(Robertson 6) or
("Snowy" par. 17)
Need examples? Use the following link:
http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/659/03/
Fallacies
Common errors in reasoning
-Undermine the logic

Overgeneralizations:
-Drawing a conclusion with too little data
Example- "The elm tree on my block has Dutch elm disease. So does the one on your block. That means all elm trees have Dutch elm disease."
Illogical Conclusion:
-Inferring something, not based on data
Example: "It rained all last week and now I have a cold. Rainy weather must cause colds."
Personal Bias:
-conclusion based on personal opinion, NOT data
Example: "Wooden bats hit the ball further than aluminum bats, because I can hit further with a wooden bat."
Identify the following types of "faulty logic":

1) Schools shouldn't have uniforms, because I wouldn't do it and I would have ISS everyday.

2) Schools shouldn't have uniforms, because clothes allow students to show their individuality, so it 5 years you wouldn't be able to tell the difference between people.

3) Schools shouldn't have uniforms, because students will rebel and cause more problems.
Warrants
a general principle or assumption that establishes a connection between the support and the claim.
3) Is your “if . . .then” warrant one that would appeal to your readers?
Ask yourself the following 3 questions
1) What were my reasons for selecting this evidence for this stance?
2) What is the “if . . . then” relationship between the claim you make in your stance and the particular statistics, authoritative sources, anecdotes, etc. that you are using as evidence?
Warrant
Claim
Evidence
Inference, not necessarily a fact
Sample Essays
View for:
-Structure, Purpose, Example Citations, Effectiveness, etc.
http://people.oregonstate.edu/~petersp/ORST/WR121_files/argument.htm#Sample Essays
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