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Singapore History

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Ron Loh

on 2 July 2013

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Transcript of Singapore History

History of Singapore
Existence of Singapore before 1819
1) Sejarah Melayu
2) Daoyi Zhi Lue
3) Archaeological discoveries
Why British choose Singapore?
1) Good geographical location
2) Safe habour
3) Absence of Dutch
4) Sufficient supply of drinking water
Problems in setting up a settlement in Singapore
1)Singapore was indirectly owned by the Dutch
2) Succession dispute in the Johor-Riau Sultanate between Tengku Hussein and Tengku Abdul Rahman
First treaty signed in 1819 with Sultan Hussein and the Temenggong
Second treaty signed in 1824 called the Anglo-Dutch Treaty
Third treaty in 1824 with Sultan Hussein and the Temenggong
Problems faced by William Farquhar to develop Singapore
- Lack of food supply
- Pest problems
- violence
William Farquhar is the first resident of Singapore
Roles of different immigrants in Singapore's development
Majority Men who came to make a living and has no intention of staying permanently
Why did the immigrants come to Singapore?
PUSH Factors


PULL Factors
Push Factors
Rapid population growth
Natural disasters
No jobs in homeland
Pull Factors
No restriction on immigration
Better job opportunities
Peace and stability
Free port status
What was the Town Plan?
Chinatown --- Residential area for different chinese dialect groups
Commercial Area --- Main centre for trade activities
Chulia Kampong --- Residential area for Indians
European Town --- Residential area for Europeans and rich Asians
Kampong Glam --- Residential area for the Sultan and Malays
Contributions of the immigrants
- Unskilled labourers
- Coolies at docks and construction sites
- Traders
- Middlemen
Contributions of the
- Businessmen
- Traders
- Provided necessities such as shipbuilders
- Hawkers
- Fisherman
- Shopkeepers
- Money chamgers
- Money lenders
- Labourers
- Shopkeepers
- Providing transport
- Businessman
- Traders
Contributions of the
Contributions of the
- Setting up houses and agencies
- Businessman
- Government official
What were the social problems and their measures?
Prevalance of crime
Outbreak of diseases
Lack of schools
Successful businessman become philanthropists to help their own community
They built schools, hospitals and community amenities and projects
In 1826, Singapore, Penang and Melaka formed the Straits Settlements
System of government from 1867 to 1942
Colonial Office in London under the British government
Governor of the Straits Settlement
Executive Council
Legislative Council
The Executive Council
1) Consists of high ranking British officials
2) They advised the Governor in the running of the settlements
The Legislative Council
1) Made up of officials and non-officials
Law and order
Chinese secret societies
- Gambling dens
- Opium houses
- Crime and violence
- Brothels
Abuse of immigrants
- Abuse of coolies
- Girls were kidnapped and sold to brothels
- Pirates robbed ships near Singapore
Law and order
Police Force
- Thomas Dunman is the first commissioner of police
- Detective Branch set up in 1862 and changed to CID in 1931
The Chinese Protectorate
- William Pickering headed this office in 1877
- Helped in solving the problems of Chinese secret societies and the the abuse of immigrants
Gunboats and steamships helped to curb pirate attacks
Social Services
- Educated people were needed to take on government administrative work and trading houses
- The British government built more English and Malay schools or offered grants but largely ignored the improvement of Chinese schools
- Scholarships were granted to student of high caliber
Social Service
- Established the Public Health Department in 1887
- Set up malaria committee
Improved public hygiene
Passed the Qurantine law
Treatment of Asians by the Europeans
- Europeans regarded themselves as more superior to the Asians
- Discriminated against Asians in government departments, public places such as trains
External Events Affecting Singapore Before WWII
The Great Depression
- Triggred by the plunge in share prices in America
- Impact on Singapore
- Decrease trade and business
- Widespread unemployment and hardship
External Events Affecting
Singapore Before WWII
The Industrial Revolution
*The invention of machines and steam engines
*Machines increased productivity
- More goods were produced by factories
- More raw material are needed for factories to produce goods
- European traders turned to Asia for new markets and new sources of raw materials
* The steam engine had led to the invention of steamships and coal-powered trains
- Reduced travelling time
- Steamships allowed traders to sail from a point to another without depending on the wind directions
* Impact on Singapore
- Increase in trade
- Increase in communication
External Events Affecting
Singapore Before WWII
The opening of Suez Canal
* Designed by a French engineer named Ferdinand de Lesseps
* It shortens travelling time
* Impact on Singapore
- Increase in trade
- New developments in port facilities
External Events Affecting
Singapore Before WWII
World War I
* Europe divided into two groups
- Allied Powers(Britian, France, Russia and Italy)
- Central Powers(Germany, Austria-Hungary, the Ottoma Empire)
* Murder of the Archduke of Austria-Hungary, Franz Ferdinand, triggered WW I
* Impact on Singapore
-Inflation of food prices caused by panic buying
- Decreased in trade due to the presence of Emden, a German warship.
- Threat to internal security caused by Sepoy Mutiny
WWII (1939-1945)
Why did japan choose to attack SEA?
-SEA was rich in natural resources and countries like America stopped supplying them with these products
British efforts in protecting Singapore from the japan
-Main fleet strategy
Main fleet strategy
-1941 HMS repulse , and HMS prince of wales was dispatched to Singapore
installing of 15-inch guns
Main fleet strategy
- Build military airfields
at Tengah and Sembawang
- Build underground bunkers
-Troops form Britain , India and Australia was dispatched to help Singapore
Singapore's fall
Japanese strength
-General Yamashita set up intelligence in Johor to spy on Singapore
-Bombed north east part of Singapore but the japan troops attacked from the northwest part of Singapore
Life after japanese rule
Singapore's name changed to Syonan-to ( light of the south)
bias against the chinese
because japan faced tough resistence when fighting against china
Fear to control
Operation Sook Ching
-To remove anti - japanese elements in the population
Social impact of japan rule
forced students to learn japanese
- Singing of japan anthem
controlled cinema radio stations and newspapers to make them all in japanese
Economic impact
japanese introduced food rationing which led to malnutrition
price inflation due to the low values of banana notes.
Tackling the problems
*Lack of housing
- A law was passed to control rents and more flats were build
*Shortage of food
- People's restaurant was set up
Shortage of public utilities
japan POWs were ordered to repair these services
*Poor health care
- Free medical services were provided
Maria Hertogh Riots in 1950
Maria Hertogh was born to catholic parents. however due to war, maria was given to a muslim family's care. Che Aminah (Mother of the muslim family) had to return maria back to the catholic parents after the war.
Maria Hertogh riots in 1950
later on Che Aminah appealed to court to take care of Maria. When Che Aminah took care of maria again, she married her to a malay teacher , Mansoor Adabi at aged 13. However maria's parents later on fought for custody for Maria again and the court granted it.
The court did not approve of the marriage as maria was under aged then and her natural parents did not agree.
When this custody argument was on-going , Maria was placed in a catholic convent reporters took this chance and took Maria in the convent which made the malays felt that Maria belonged to the convent. Hence, this created a huge dispute and the malays started a riot .
Chinese-educated students wanted to continue with their studies as it was disrupted by the war. they felt that the government are ignoring their interest.
Rendel constitution
recommended limited self-governance where the local representatives took over less important aspects such as housing education trade and industry and health.
1955 elections
- More political parties were formed
- Labor front party won with 10/25 seats
- David Marshall became Singapore's first chief minister
- David Marshall's governance
he was not respected much by the british
the british felt that he could not safeguard their interest.
- The british also lost confidence in him when he did not want to arrest those whom instigated the hock lee bus riots.
- Hock Lee Bus riots occurred when workers from Singapore bus workers' union (SBWU) went on strike for better pay and better living condition . students helped by supplying food for them and entertaining them when they are on strike.
After the riots , David Marshall led a delegation to London to request self governance . This was known as the first Merdeka talks . The talk failed and David Marshall resigned from his post.
After David resigned, Lim yew hock took over his position. He adopted a cooperative manner with the British and took a tough stance with the communist. the british was impressed with his administration and granted Singapore complete self governance during the second Merdeka talks. The internal self governance would grant governance to all matters except internal security.
It would also share duties with british for external affairs and external defense.
The 1959 voting was the first fully democratic election. The citizenship ordinance was introduced to increase the number of voters. Voting also became compulsory. The People's Action Party (PAP) won by 43/51 seats and it formed the government successfully. Lee Kuan Yew became the 1st prime minister and Yusof Bin Ishak became the head of state. Singapore created its own national anthem , crest and flag
Reasons for Singapore to merge with Malaya
- By merging with Malaya, Singapore can gain independence from the British.
- Singapore would obtain natural resources from Malaya
- Free trade in Malaya
Agreement to Merger
- Both sides agreed to set up common Market in stages
- Singapore would provide a loan of $150 million to develop Sabah and Sarawak
- Singapore would collect its own revenue and pay the Centre Government an agreed sum of money as taxes each year
- Delay in setting up common market
- Increases in taxes Singapore must pay to the Central Government from 40% to 60%
- Singapore and Malaya had different systems in forming political parties
- The Alliance Party and the People Action Party (PAP) engaged in political rivalry
- Racial politics between Malaya and PAP resulted in two riots
Singapore after separation
Singapore become a Republic
- Yusof Bin Ishak became the first president of Singapore
- S.Rajaratnam wrote the Pledge of Singapore
- Singapore joined the United Nation on 16 September 1965
- Singapore formed the Association of Southeast Nation with other Southeast Asian countries
2) They help make new laws
1959 Voting
History of Singapore
Today's presentation
1) Singapore before 1819
2) Founding of Singapore
3) The Roles of Different Immigrants in Singapore's development
4) British system of Government in Singapore Before WW II
5) External Events Affecting Singapore Before WW II
History of Singapore
Today's presentation
6) Effects of WW II on Singapore
7) The Local Response to British Rule after WW II
8) Singapore's Progression to Internal Self-Government
9) Singapore Achieving Independence
10) The Laju Incident
11) Singapore Police Force
1) Singapore before 1819
2) Founding of Singapore
3) The Roles of Different Immigrants in
Singapore's Development
4) British system of Government in Singapore Before WW II
5) External Events Affecting Singapore Before WW II
6) Effects of WW II on Singapore
7) The Local Response to British Rule after WW II
8) Singapore's Progression to Internal Self-Government
9) Singapore Achieving Independence
--- Merger and Separation
Chinese middle schools riots
The Chinese middle schools riots were a
series of riots that broke out in the Singaporean
Chinese community in 1956, resulting in
13 people killed and more than 100 injured.
In 1956, after Lim Yew Hock replaced
David Marshall as Chief Minister of
Singapore, he began to take tough measures
to suppress communist activities with the
support of the British Governor and
Commissioner of Police.
Lim Yew Hock deregistered and banned two pro-communist organizations: the Singapore Women’s Association (SWA) and the Chinese Musical Gong Society. The Singapore Chinese Middle School Students Union (SCMSSU) was also dissolved.
In protest, students gathered and camped at
Chung Cheng High School and The Chinese
High School. They sat-in over the next two weeks, organising meetings and holding demonstrations.
On October 24, the government issued an
ultimatum that the schools be vacated. As the deadline approached, riots started at the Chinese High
School and spread to other parts of the island.
The government decided to take action. On 26 October 1956, the police entered the schools and cleared the students using tear gas. Forced out from the schools, the students headed for the city. They overturned cars and damaged traffic lights. They also threw stones and bottles. Over the next five days, 13 people were killed and more than 100 were injured.
10) The Laju Incident
On 31 January 1974, four men armed with submachine guns and explosives attacked
the Shell oil refinery complex on Pulau Bukom,
a small island lying south of Singapore. The terrorists were two members of the Japanese
Red Army (JRA) and two members of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP).
Their goal was to disrupt the oil supply from Singapore to other countries, especially South Vietnam.
At the beginning of their operation, the
terrorists' boat ran aground on a coral reef.
They managed to reach the shore of Bukom after convincing an unsuspecting boatman to tow them towards the island. As they headed towards a gate of an oil tank installation, they fired shots at two passing vehicles although no one was injured. A sentry at a security post managed to escape and raise the alarm
The terrorists were able to detonate 3 of
the 12 explosives they were carrying, but they caused little damage. To escape, they then
hijacked the ferryboat Laju at the Bukom jetty
and held 5 crew members hostage. This led to a chase and Laju was quickly surrounded by navy gunboats and marine police boats at the Eastern Anchorage.
This was followed by a few days of intense negotiations, during which two hostages managed to escape by jumping overboard in the middle of the night. The terrorists later agreed to release the other crew members in exchange for a party of "guarantors" for their safe passage to the Middle East. This 13-men party consisted of four commandos from the Singapore Armed Forces and eight other government officials. The party was led by the Director of Security and Intelligence Division at the Ministry of Defence, S R Nathan, who later became the President of Singapore in 1999.
On the night of 7 February, the group was transferred from Laju to the Marine Police Headquarters and then to Paya Lebar Airport where the terrorists surrendered their weapons. After they freed the remaining three hostages, the four terrorists left Singapore on 8 February at 1:25 am, accompanied by Nathan’s team on a specially arranged Japan Airlines flight to Kuwait. After reaching Kuwait, the 13-men party flew back and reached Singapore on the following day.
All members of the negotiating team received National Day Honours.
11) Singapore Police Force
1) What are two evidences that shows the existence of Singapore before 1819?
2) Why did British choose Singapore? ( Give 2 reasons)
3) Who is the first Resident of Singapore?
4) List two examples of push factors.
5) When did Singapore become a Strait Settlement?

-Started under the command of Francis James Bernard, son-in-law of William Farquhar
-Monthly budget of $300
-There were little people as they had to perform a wide range of roles
6) Who is the first commissioner of police?
7) List two

External Events Affecting Singapore Before WW II
8) What was Singapore's name changed to under Japanese rule?

9) What was the currency used during the Japanese rule?
10) Who was Singapore's first chief minister?
11) Who was the first head of state?
12) When was the first fully democratic election?
13) List two reasons to why Singapore merged with Malaya.
14) In which year did The Laju Incident happened?
15) Where did The Laju Incident happened at?
16) In 1819, what was the monthly budget of the SPF?
17) When was NS introduced?

There were high crime rates with made raffles very concerned,which made him wrote to William Farquhar to direct him to assume personal direction and establishment as well as discharge of duties to magistrate
1965(after independence)
-Police force was renamed as Polis Repablik Singapura which came under the Ministry of Interior and defense (MID)
-Government launched a recruitment programme that utilised the press, radio and community centres. Majority of the recruits were chinese
-Dr Goh Keng Swee came to ministry of Finance making Mr Lim Kim San took over MID
-NS was introduced to encourage greater interest in police among school boys and girls,the PCC was extended to all secondary school and is now part of National Cadet Corps
-Old police stations were replaced and new
Badges and ranks were issued.
Singapore was admitted to the international
crime police organisation at the 37th general
Assembly of Interpol held in Teheran in October
18) When were badges and ranks introduced in the Police force?
19) When was flannel and khaki uniforms were replaced by heavy dark blue serge?
20) When was the Auxiliary Police Force set up?

-Flannel and khaki uniforms were replaced by heavy dark blue serge the new uniform is symbolic of the transformation of a colonial police force into a national police force within 10 years
-The Polis Repablik Singapura is known as Singapore Police Force (SPF)
-It is now a multi racial force
-NS was extended to SPF,with the primary aim of guarding key installations and to act as a reserve
-Changing security needs
trend in outsourcing installation protection (such as to the Auxiliary Police Force)
-Wooden batons are replaced with T batons
-Each officer is issued with a handcuffs
-The primary communication tool carried by each officer is through a digital radio set provided by Martra Nortel Communications , the same provider for other Home team organisations such as the SCDF.
5-shot Smith & Wesson model 36( 3inch barrel) was replaced with the 5shot 38 Taurus model
Has a laser sight with a new - snatcher resistant holster
had a speedloader to replace the old bullet pouch
new firearms for the SOC namely the sphinx 3000 pistol
USP pistols are known to be used by CID,STAR,security command and PCG's special task squadron
SPF also uses the Heckler &Jouch MP5 SMG and Remington870 shotgun
Any Questions?
The End^^
The Police Pledge
We pledge to be loyal and true to the Police service and the Republic of Singapore.
We pledge to uphold the law, to protect life and property, to prevent and detect crime.
We pledge to discharge our responsibilities without fear or favour, regardless of race, language or religion.
We pledge to strive for excellence, to be proactive and to exercise initiative in our duties.
We pledge to serve our community and our country and to be courteous and humane in our dealings with every fellowman.
Police Headquarters
Commissioner of Police: CP Ng Joo Hee
Deputy Commissioner of Police: DCP Raja Kumar s/o Thamby Rajah
Full transcript