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The Love of Grammar

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Sydney VanRoosendaal

on 11 February 2014

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Transcript of The Love of Grammar

Punctuation
Question marks end all direct and incomplete questions and statements:
Direct question
: What is your name?
Incomplete Question:
Really? When? No kidding?
Statement intended as question:
Your name is Fred?

Capitalization
The Love of Grammar
We will be talking about

Punctuation rules and tips

Capitalization rules and tips

and pronouns

Semicolon:


Use a semicolon to either join an independent sentence to another of the same emphasis or when it restates the first sentence
Also, you can use a semicolon when the second clause uses a conjunctive adverb (However, therefore, furthermore, etc)
Or, use a semicolon to connect a series of items that use commas already
Examples:
These are some great places to go: Salt Lake city, Utah; Dallas, Texas; New york City, New York; Las vegas, Nevada.
Colon
Use a colon when you want to emphasize the second clause
Use a colon when it is followed by a list, a quotation or an idea directed towards the clause.
Use a colon at the end of a business letter, for a biblical reference or for time
Example:
To whom it may concern:

There will be delays on the road today: There is a lot of black ice.
I would hope you would know how to use a period, but just in case:
A period goes at the end of a sentence. Just like how I just put the period at the end of that sentence. And that one.
Here are some basic rules
Capitalizing
names and titles
The following should be capitalized
Proper Nouns

Bob, Jane,
February,
Paris, and Thursday
Titles before the person's name
Chairman Riley Elder, President Obama, Prime Minister Mark Rutte, and Doctor House
Capitalizing Places and Seasons
Compass regions are capitalized only when specified
My family is visiting from the East.
Go three miles east.
Seasons are to not be capitalized
I was born in the spring and my sister was born in the winter
When Punctuation Confuses You
First Word in a Quoted Sentence
"Roses are red, violets are blue, sugar is lumpy and so is your head."
When a sentence has a colon, do not capitalize it if it is a list
These are my favorite things: raindrops on roses, whiskers on kittens, warm woolen mittens
Any questions?
I hope you learned something about capitalization!
Pronouns
A pronoun is used to make sentences less repetitive. They serve as replacements for nouns, and often other pronouns. There are ten types of pronouns used in the English language.
What is a pronoun?
Personal Pronouns
A personal pronoun refers specifically to a person or thing.
It changes according to:
person - first, second, or third person
number - singular and plural
gender - he, she, him, her, etc.
case - subjective, objective and possessive
There are three types of personal pronouns.
Subjective Personal Pronouns
When a personal pronoun acts as the subject of a sentence, we call it a subjective personal pronoun. "I", "you", "she", "he", "it", "we", and "they" are subjective personal pronouns.
In the following example sentences, the subjective personal pronouns are blue:
"
I
love to play the guitar."
"
She
is an excellent writer."
"
You
are the most beautiful person
I
have ever seen."
Objective Personal
Pronouns
Objective personal pronouns act as the object of a verb, compound verb, preposition or infinitive phrase. The objective personal pronouns are "me", "you", "her", "him", "it", "us", "you", and "them".
In the following example sentences, the objective personal pronoun is blue:
"She made
him
smile."
"His mother read to
him
."
"She picked up the glass and threw
it
at the wall."
Possessive Personal Pronouns
Possessive personal pronouns define who owns a particular object or person. The possessive personal pronouns are "mine", "yours", "hers", "his", "its", "ours", and "theirs". These aren't to be confused with possessive adjectives like "my", "her", and "their".

In the following example sentences, the possessive personal pronoun is blue:
"Don't touch that, it's
mine
."
"Her eyes aren't as pretty as
yours
."
"
Its
face is terrifying."
Demonstrative Pronouns
A demonstrative pronoun points to a noun or pronoun and identifies it. The demonstrative pronouns are "this", "that", "these", and "those".
"This" and "that" refer to singular nouns, and "these" and "those" refer to plural nouns.
Additionally, "this" and "these" are used when talking about something closer in space and time, while "that" and "those" are the opposite.
In the following sentences, the demonstrative pronouns are blue:
"
This
is no fun."
"I like
those
ones more than
these
ones."
"Did you see
that
?"
Interrogative Pronouns
These pronouns are used in asking questions. The interrogative pronouns are "who", "whom", "which", "what", and compounds formed with the suffix "ever" ("whichever", "whatever", etc.).
"Who" and "whom" are used to refer to people, and "what" refers to animals and things. "Which" can refer to either people or animals and things.
Additional note: "who" acts as the subject of a verb, while "whom" acts as the object of a verb or preposition.
In the following sentences, the interrogative pronouns are blue:
"
Who
are you?"
"To
whom
are you referring?"
"
Which
one is the best?"
Relative Pronouns
A relative pronoun is used to link a phrase or clause to another phrase or clause. The relative pronouns are "who", "whom", "that", "which", and the compounds "whoever", "whomever", and "whichever".
Use "who" and "whoever" to refer to the subject of a sentence, and use "whom" and "whomever" to refer to the object of a verb of preposition.
In the following sentences, the relative pronoun is blue:
"Be with
whoever
you want to be with."
"The person
who
runs the fastest wins."
"To
whom
it may concern..."
Indefinite Pronouns
This pronoun refers to an identifiable but unspecified person or thing. Indefinite pronouns convey the idea of all, any, none, or some.
The most common indefinite pronouns are "all", "another", "any", "anybody", "anyone", "anything", "each", "everybody", "everyone", "everything", "few", "many", "nobody", "none", "one", "several", "some", "somebody", and "someone".
In the following sentences, the indefinite pronoun is blue:
"
Everyone
loves you!"
"
Nobody

understands
me."
"I hate
everything
."
Reflexive Pronouns
Reflexive pronouns are used to refer back to the subject of the sentence. The reflexive pronouns are "myself", "yourself", "herself", "himself", "itself", "ourselves", "yourselves", and "themselves". Each of these can also be intensive pronouns.
In the following sentences, the reflexive pronouns are in blue:
"You're going to give
yourself
a black eye."
"I was beside
myself
when Series Two of Sherlock ended."
"She drove
herself
home."
Intensive Pronouns
Intensive pronouns are meant to give emphasis to their antecedents. They are identical in form to reflexive pronouns.
In the following sentences, the intensive pronouns are blue:
"The president
himself
will be there."
"I
myself
want to be in control of my publication."
"I saw the cast
themselves
."
Pronouns
In conclusion, there are 10 types of pronouns:
Personal
Subjective personal
Objective personal
Possessive personal
Demonstrative
Interrogative
Relative
Indefinite
Reflexive
Intensive
Overall, they are a lot more complicated than they look, but we use them all of the time without thinking about it. Understanding them just means we can use them correctly.
Titles of Books and Movies
The first and last word in a movie or book title need to be capitalized

The Old Man and the Sea
Capitalize the first word in a sentence
I hope this presentation is going well.
Call me tomorrow; i'll give you my answer then.
Do not worry, I added media to my part to make it less boring.
This is what I find on the internet
Yes, yes it can.
Apostrophe:
Is it plural?
(Plural is more than 1)

Yes
NO
Don't use an apostrophe

With two exceptions.-
Single letter words:
There are two t's in mittens.
Or
There are two "t"s in mittens.
Or a number or abbreviation:
The 90's were weird
.
You may also do this:
I attended college in the '90s
If it indicates possession, then use an apostrophe
Bill's boots are an ugly grey color.
But what if it's possessive and plural?
Then put the apostrophe after the s.
The soldiers' rifles were no match for Bob's lightning pants.
Unless its already plural. Like Children. You would put Children's.
Is it a Contraction?
I can't (Cannot) believe you drank that poison.

I wouldn't recommend putting a bee in your pants.

No, I won't scuba dive in a volcano.


The difference of it's and its.
If you are trying to say "it is" then use an apostrophe .

It's unusual to run around with a knife, but I do it anyway
Are you indicating possession?
The T-Rex is known for its unkind nature and its inability to reach things.
What if their name ends in s?
Chris' sister is sexy.
Chris's room is messy.
Both are acceptable!
If it is a possessive and plural name, stick it after the s
The Johnsons' are all very nice.
When in doubt, just use spell check
The way you use grammar can really change a sentence
I'm done.
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