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Transcript of MILK
Milk contains Casein. It's the milk protein that is rich in calcium and it is white. The cream in milk has some fat which is also white. Its presence in the milk makes the milk whiter. Low and non-fat milk has less cream and may appear less white. by: Trixie Aquino why is milk white...??? HISTORY OF MILK Milk is as ancient as mankind itself, as it is the substance created to feed the mammalian species of mammals, from man to whales, produce milk for this purpose. Many centuries ago, perhaps as early as 6000-8000 B.C, ancient man learned to domesticate species of animals for the provision of milk to be consumed by them. These included cows, buffaloes, sheep, goats and camels, all of which are still used in various parts of the world for the production of milk for human consumption. Fermented products as cheese were discovered by accident but their history has also been documented for many centuries, as has the production of concentrated milks, butter and even ice-cream. Humans first learned to regularly consume the milk of other mammals following the domestication of animals during the Neolithic Revolution or the invention of agriculture. Fermented products as cheese were discovered by accident but their history has also been documented for many centuries, as has the production of concentrated milks, butter and even ice-cream. Andrew Sherratt has suggested that dairying, along with the exploitation of domestic animals for hair and labor, began much later in a separate secondary products revolution in the 4th millennium BC From Southwest Asia domestic dairy animals spread to Europe and South Asia around 7000 BC but not reaching Britain and Scandinavia until after 4000 BC. Europe South Asia In the rest of the world , milk and dairy products were historically not a large part of the diet, either because they remained populated by hunter-gatherers who did not keep animals or the local agricultural economies did not include domesticated dairy species. In 1863, French chemist and biologist Louis Pasteur invented pasteurization, a method of killing harmful bacteria in beverages and food products. In 1884, Doctor Hervey Thatcher, an American inventor from New York, invented the first glass milk bottle, called 'Thatcher's Common Sense Milk Jar', which was sealed with a waxed paper disk. Later, in 1932, plastic-coated paper milk cartons were introduced commercially as a consequence of their invention by Victor W. Farris. types of consumption: Nutrition for infant mammals: In almost all mammals, milk is fed to infants through breastfeeding, either directly or by expressing the milk to be stored and consumed later. Some cultures, historically or currently, continue to use breast milk to feed their children until they are seven years old. Food product for humans Humans continue to consume milk beyond infancy, using the milk of other animals as a food product. For millennia, cow's milk has been processed into dairy products such as cream, butter, yogurt, kefir, ice cream, and especially the more durable and easily transportable product, cheese. Types of Milk by: Mark Arvie Baniaga Josephine Viaña Natural whole milk is milk with nothing added or removed.
Whole standardized milk is whole milk standardized to a minimum fat content of 3.5%.
Whole homogenized milk is identical in fat and nutrient content to whole standardized milk however it has undergone a specific process known as “homogenization” which breaks up the fat globules in the milk. This spreads the fat evenly throughout the milk and prevents a creamy layer forming at the top. Whole milk Natural whole milk is collected from the dairy herd and undergoes various processing techniques before it reaches the shelf for consumption by the general public. How is it produced? - is the process whereby milk is heated with the purpose of killing potentially harmful micro-organisms such as certain pathogenic bacteria, yeasts and moulds which may be present in the milk after initial collection. This helps to protect against any food bourne illness that can occur through consumption of raw (unpasteurized) milk. Pasteurization Following pasteurization, the milk is rapidly cooled and is then stored in a refrigerator in order to preserve its shelf life.
Various pasteurization and heat treatment techniques can be used in the production of milk which can affect storage capacity-detailed in later sections. Semi skimmed milk is the most popular type of milk in the UK with a fat content of 1.7%, compared to a minimum of 3.5% in whole standardized milk and 0.1% in skimmed milk Semi skimmed milk Skimmed milk has a fat content of between 0-0.5% and an average fat content of 0.1%. Skimmed milk therefore has nearly all the fat removed.
It contains slightly more calcium than whole milk and lower levels of fat soluble vitamins, particularly vitamin A, as this is lost when the fat is removed Skimmed milk The lower level of fat in skimmed milk reduces its calorie (energy) content. For this reason it is not recommended for children under the age of 5 years as they need the extra energy for growth. However it is ideal for adults who wish to limit their fat or calorie intake.
Skimmed milk has a slightly more watery appearance than other types of milk and has a less creamy taste due to the removal of fat. On the 1st of January 2008 new regulations came into force to facilitate consumer choice. Now any milk with a fat content other than those laid out can also be considered as ‘milk’, provided that its fat content is clearly indicated on the packaging in the form of ‘….% fat’. However, these milks cannot be described as whole, semi-skimmed or skimmed.
Following this change in regulation 1% fat milk is now offered to consumers who like the taste of semi-skimmed, but want to enjoy milk with a lower fat content. 1% fat milk The nutritional differences between semi-skimmed and 1% fat milk are small and dependent mainly on the difference in fat content. 1% fat milk contains 40% less total and saturated fat than standard semi-skimmed milk. In addition, it has a lower energy content than semi-skimmed, and slightly lower levels of vitamins A and E, but has a higher calcium content Organic milk comes from cows that have been grazed on pasture that has no chemical fertilizers, pesticides or agrochemicals used on it.
The producers must register with an approved organic body and are subject to regular inspection.
Once the cows have been milked, the milk is treated in exactly the same way as regular pasteurized milk. Organic milk There is no evidence to suggest that organic milk is any more nutritious than conventionally produced milk. Although there have been studies to show that organically produced milk contains higher levels of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, these are plant derived, short-chain fatty acids which appear to be of limited health benefit compared to the longer chain omega-3 fatty acids found in oily fish Channel Island milk is produced from Jersey or Guernsey breeds of cow and has a particularly rich and creamy taste.
It tends to be slightly higher in calories and fat than regular whole milk and also has a higher content of fat soluble vitamins -particularly vitamin A which is important for the promotion and maintenance of healthy growth and development Jersey and Guernsey milk Jersey and Guernsey milks tend to have a visible cream line and are commonly found in supermarkets as “breakfast milk”. The flavoured milk market is one of the fastest growing dairy sectors.
There are a wide variety of flavours and consistencies to cater for all ages and tastes with a choice of long-life (i.e. Ultra Heat Treated or sterilized) or fresh flavoured milk Flavoured milk Most flavoured milk products are produced using reduced fat milk varieties and usually have a fat content of around 1%.
The most popular flavours are chocolate, strawberry and banana however more sophisticated flavours such as peach, mocha or products made with real Belgian and Swiss chocolate have been developed for the more adult market.
In comparison with plain milks, flavoured milks tend to have slightly higher sugar content, however studies have suggested that they are still a favourable option for children and teenagers as they provide a wide range of beneficial nutrients. Approximately 99% of milk sold in the UK is heat-treated, to kill harmful bacteria and to improve its shelf life Heat treated milks most of the milk that we buy has been pasteurized. This means that it has been heated to a temperature that eradicates any potentially dangerous bacteria, but does not affect the flavor of the milk.
Pasteurized milk will keep fresh for 2-3 days in a fridge. This is the kind of milk most often used for drinking, on cereals and in cooking Pasteurized Sterilized milk is available in whole, semi skimmed and skimmed varieties. It goes through a more severe form of heat treatment, which destroys nearly all the bacteria in it. Sterilized milk Firstly the milk is pre-heated to around 50oC, then homogenized (see below for a brief outline of homogenization), after which it is poured into glass bottles which are closed with an airtight seal.
There is no legally defined process for sterilizing milk but, commonly, filled bottles are carried on a conveyor belt through a steam chamber where they are heated to a temperature of between 110-130ºC for approximately 10-30 minutes. Then they are cooled using a cold water tank, sprays or, in some cases, atmospheric air and then crated. The sterilization process results in a change of taste and colour and also slightly reduces the nutritional value of the milk, particularly the B group vitamins and vitamin C.
Unopened bottles or cartons of sterilized milk keep for approximately 6 months without the need for refrigeration. Once opened it must be treated as fresh milk and used within 5 days UHT or ultra heat treated milk is a form of milk that has been heated to a temperature of at least 135ºC in order to kill off any harmful micro-organisms (e.g. harmful bacteria) which may be present in the milk. The milk is then packaged into sterile containers UHT milk All milk that is available for sale to consumers through supermarkets and milkmen must be pasteurized i.e. heated to 71.7ºC in order to make it safe for consumers and improve its shelf life. However UHT milks have a longer shelf life as a result of the higher temperatures to which they are heated and the packaging used to store them.
UHT milk is available in whole, semi skimmed and skimmed varieties. Evaporated milk is a concentrated, sterilized milk product. It has a concentration twice that of standard milk.
The process of producing evaporated milk involves standardizing, heat treating and evaporating the milk under reduced pressure, at temperatures between 60ºC and 65ºC Evaporated milk The evaporated milk is then homogenized to prevent it separating under storage and then it is cooled.
The evaporated milk is poured into cans, which are then sealed. At this point the cans are moved to a sterilizer where they are held for 10 minutes.
A cooling stage follows and the cans are then labeled and packed.
As a result of processing, evaporated milk possesses a characteristic cooked flavor as well as a characteristic colour. Condensed milk is concentrated in the same way as evaporated milk, but with the addition of sugar.
This product is not sterilized but is preserved by the high concentration of sugar. It can be made from whole milk, semi skimmed or skimmed milk.
The heat treatment used consists of holding standardized milk at a temperature of 110-115ºC for one to two minutes.
The milk is then homogenized, the sugar added and the sweetened milk is then evaporated at low temperatures (between 55-60ºC). The concentration of the condensed milk is now up to 3 times that of the original milk. Condensed milk The milk is then cooled rapidly to 30ºC and packaged.
Sweetened condensed milk is commonly used in the sugar confectionary industry for the production of toffee, caramel and fudge. It is also an alternative to liquid milk which was once traditionally used in these products. All milk sold from the supermarkets has to be heat-treated (pasteurized) to kill harmful bacteria.
However, untreated milk can be bought direct from registered milk production holdings (at the farm gate or in a farmhouse catering operation) or through a limited number of milkmen in England and Wales.
Sales through other outlets have been banned since 1985 (although sales by the farmer at farmers markets are allowed). In addition, the milk must bear the appropriate health warning. Untreated (raw) milk A ban for the sale of raw milk in Scotland has been in place since 1983.
Raw milk represents only a very small fraction of total milk consumption. Animal Health Dairy Hygiene has estimated this to be 0.01% of total cows' milk consumption. Filtered milk goes through an extra, fine filtration system, which prevents souring bacteria from passing through.
The nutritional content of the milk is unaffected but the shelf life is increased.
The processes involved include, microfiltration, ultrafiltration and nanofiltration.
Microfiltration is the most commonly used process and is a pressure-activated separation process which uses a membrane that is permeable to substances with a low molecular weight but rejects material with a high molecular weight. Filtered milks In the process of microfiltration of skimmed milk, bacteria are removed using ceramic filters with 1.4 micrometer holes to separate the milk from the bacteria. After this process, virtually all the bacteria present in the milk are removed. The milk is then homogenized to standardize and evenly distribute the fat molecules, where it then undergoes the pasteurization process before being chilled down quickly to 5ºC or less.
Microfiltration adds an extra level of cleanness which can extend shelf life up to 45 days when stored at temperatures of up to 7ºC and an average 7 days once opened.
Filtered milk is available in whole, semi skimmed or skimmed milk varieties. Milk powder is produced by evaporating the water from the milk using heat. The milk is homogenized, heat treated and pre-concentrated before drying.
There are a number of ways to produce dried milk powder including spray drying and roller drying. Dried milk powder In the most commonly used spray drying process, the concentrated milk is introduced into a chamber (usually as a fine mist) through which hot air is circulating. The droplets of milk soon lose their water and fall to the floor as fine powder.
Skimmed milk powder can be mixed easily with water; however whole milk isn’t easily reconstituted due to its higher fat content. Roller drying is an old process of producing milk powder-this involves spreading the concentrated milk onto heated rollers. The water evaporates quickly and leaves a thin film of powder, which is scraped off the rollers. This powder has a cooked flavour and tends to form lumps when mixed with water. Whole milk powder contains all the nutrients of whole milk in a concentrated form with the exception of vitamin C, thiamin and vitamin B12. Skimmed milk powder contains hardly any fat and therefore no fat soluble vitamins. However, the protein, calcium and riboflavin content remain unaffected.
If stored correctly, skimmed milk powders can be kept for up to one year. Once they are reconstituted, they must be treated as fresh milk. When milk is homogenized the fat particles are broken up and dispersed evenly throughout it. The cream is blended into all of the milk, instead of floating to the surface, which it does when it is left to its own devices. Homogenized milk has a richer flavor that is not to everyone’s taste. Homogenized milk Homogenization of milk involves forcing the milk at high pressure through small holes. This breaks up the fat globules in order to spread them evenly throughout the milk and prevent separation of a cream layer.
This process basically results in milk of uniform composition or consistency and palatability without removing or adding any constituents. Homogenization increases the whiteness of milk because the greater numbers of fat globules scatter the light more effectively.
Most milk available on the market is homogenized at present. Homogenization Made from nonfat/low fat milk
Cultured sour milk, certain organisms added to become sweet
Very popular in cooking Eg: Buttermilk biscuits and pancakes Buttermilk Made from low fat/non-fat milk
Cocoa does not act fat just about 60 calories and a little caffeine.
Milk added with cocoa and sweeteners Chocolate Milk Adding a live bacterial culture to the milk after pasteurization
Easier to digest for some people Acidophilus Milk Acidophilus milk, sometimes called sweet acidophilus milk, has Lactobacillus acidophilus bacteria added to it, giving it a tangy flavor and thickened texture. This cultured product is usually low in fat and has a longer shelf life than ordinary milk. Many people believe it can benefit digestion and prevent allergies due to the activity of the acidophilus bacteria in the intestines. Milk of this kind is often available at health food stores as well as some major supermarkets. Suitable for people who are diagnosed as lactose-intolerant Lactose-reduced Milk SOURCES OF MILK All female mammals can by definition produce milk, but cow milk dominates commercial production. In 2011, FAO(Food and Agriculture Organization) estimates 85% of all milk worldwide was produced from cows Human milk is not produced or distributed industrially or commercially; however, milk banks exist that allow for the collection of donated human milk and its redistribution to infants who may benefit from human milk for various reasons (premature neonates, babies with allergies, metabolic diseases In the Western world, cow's milk is produced on an industrial scale and is by far the most commonly consumed form of milk. Commercial dairy farming using automated milking equipment produces the vast majority of milk in developed countries. Dairy cattle such as the Holstein have been bred selectively for increased milk production. About 90% of the dairy cows in the United States and 85% in Great Britain are Holsteins. Other dairy cows in the United States include Ayrshire, Brown Swiss, Guernsey, Jersey, and Milking Shorthorn (Dairy Shorthorn). Aside from cattle, many kinds of livestock provide milk used by humans for dairy products. These animals include buffalo, goat, sheep,camel, donkey, horse, reindeer, and yak. The first four respectively produced about 11%, 2%, 1.4% and 0.2% of all milk worldwide in 2011.
In Russia and Sweden, small moose dairies also exist Sources aside from cows According to the US National Bison Association, American bison (also called American buffalo) are not milked commercially;however, various sources report cows resulting from cross-breeding bison and domestic cattle are good milk producers, and have been used both during the European settlement of North America and during the development of commercial Beefalo in the 1970s and 1980s. Top 10 cow milk producers in 2010 1. USA 87,446,130 M.T. 2. India 50,300,000 M.T. 3. China 36,036,086 M.T. 4. Russia 31,895,100 M.T. 5. Brazil 31,667,600 M.T. 6. Germany 29,628,900 M.T. 7. France 23,301,200 M.T. 8. New Zealand 17,010,500 M.T. 9. United Kingdom 13,960,000 M.T. 10. Turkey 12,480,100 M.T. Physical and Chemical characteristics of milk by: Glen Erwin Pasagui Milk is the natural physiological secretion from normally functioning mammary gland of a mammal intended to nourish the young ones. All female mammals can secrete milk, the properties of which are similar to those of cow’s milk in general but there are considerable differences still existing with respect to their physical and chemical nature COLOR
Milk is a liquid of yellow white color . Color varies from bluish white to light yellow,depending upon the breed of the cow, the feed fed to the cow, and the quantity of fat and other solids present in it. Cow's milk is yellow white that of buffalo, sheep, goat and other species is white. Yellow color of the milk is due to a pigment known as carotene which is synthesized from the green feed fed to the cow. Conversion of carotenes into Vit. A chiefly occurs in liver.
In case of buffalo milk this change is complete and thus buffalo milk is white. In case of cows, this conversion of carotene into Vit. A is partial so cow's milk is yellow in color. The white color (apolescence) of milk is due to reflection of light by the fat globules and the colloidal protein, calcium caseinate & phosphate.
The bluish Colour of separated milk or whey is due to another pigment known asRiboflavin (Vit.B) or Lactochrome. TASTE
Milk is slightly sweet in taste. This is due to the presence of lactose (Milk Sugar) in it. The Sweet taste of lactose is balanced against the salty taste of chloride in Milk SMELL
Milk has got a characteristic odor of its own, when it is drawn from the udder. Freshly drawn milk has a “cowey” odor which disappears when kept exposed for some time. Milk has got the capacity to acquire odor from the surrounding and also from the feed etc. but these odors are abnormal. Milk has develop odor due to bacterial action and change in its chemical composition
Certain metals may have an adverse effect on the flavor of the milk which comes in contact with them the metals are like copper, and copper alloys, nickel, brass, bronze, etc. Rusty cans or other rusty surfaces may prove harmful producing a metallic or tallowy flavors ACID-BASE EQUILIBRIUM
Freshly drawn milk has got “Amphoteric Reaction” i.e. it changes red litmus blue and blue litmus red. Its average pH value is 6.7 on tit rating it with an alkali it is found to contain 0.1 to 0.17% acidity. This acidity is not due to lactic acid (Developed)but due to phosphates of milk proteins Citrate and carbon dioxide present in milk (Natural). SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF MILK
The specific gravity of freshly drawn milk is lower than specific gravity obtained, after an hour or later. The rise in specific gravity is regular ,more rapid at low temperature than at higher ones and amounts on an average to 0.001. This is called “Recknagels phenomenon” and is attributed to: 1- Change in the specific gravity of fat due to partial cooling and solidification. 2- Hydration of the proteins. 3- Loss of carbon dioxide. 4- Presence of air bubbles. The specific gravity of a fluid varies with its temperature.
Water reaches its maximum specific gravity at 39°F or 3.9°C ,while milk does not attain its maximum specific gravity until a temperature of 31.01°F or – 0.55°C, the freezing point of milk, is reached. As the milk fat is the lightest constituent of milk,the more that is present, the lower the specific gravity and the greater the percentage of SNF, the heavier the milk will be. The specific gravity ranges from 1.025 to 1.032 at 60°F or 15.5°C. Skim milk is heavier than whole milk, the specific gravity varying from 1.032 to 1.037. Variations in specific gravity are due to variation in amount of various constituents.
Milk fat has a specific gravity of 0.935 to 0.945, milk sugar 1.67; salts about 4.0; and proteins 1.31 to 1.346. FREEZING POINT
Milk freezes at -0.55°C to -0.56°C (31.0 to30.96°F). Skim, whole milk or cream have same freezing point. Milk has lower freezing point than water due to the presence of lactose and salts in aqueous phase.
The freezing point is affected by : 1- Increased acidity (Decrease FP), 2-addition of preservatives (Decrease FP), 3-addition of water. BOILING POINT
Milk is slightly heavier than water because of its solute content and boiling point of a liquid is influenced by factors responsible for its specific gravity. Milk boils at a temperature slightly higher. Water boils at 212°F (100°C) at sea level, while average milk boils at 212.3°F (100.17°C) VISCOSITY
It is the resistance to flow and is the reverse of fluidity. Viscosity is the property of all fluids. It can be expressed in only relative terms and for convenience the relative viscosity of any fluid is compared with water. Water flows with ease. Syrup and honey pour much more slowly and posses greater viscosity. Milk is 1.5to 1.7 times more viscous than water owing to the presence of solids in milk.
Factors affecting viscosity:1- Temperature (At O°C, milk has a fluidity of 0.233 and water has a fluidity of 0.558 & At 20°C, these values change to 0.473 and 1.00)
2- fat content, 3- homogenization, 4- souring, 5- ageing, 6- microbial growth, 7- high heating followed by cooling.
Heating the milk to pasteurization temperature or agitating it lowers the viscosity. ADHESIVENESS
A piece of paper moistened with milk sticks to a flat surface of wood, glass or metal. This property is undoubtedly due to casein, which is used in large quantities in the manufacture of casein glue, one of the strongest glues made. REFRACTIVE INDEX
Milk has a R.I. of about 1.35 that of water being 1.33. Addition of water would therefore lower the refractive index of milk. But since considerable variation is found in values for genuine milk, it is not possible to use this property alone as a criterion for the genuineness of milk samples SURFACE TENSION
Compared with water, the surface tension of milk is low(Milk-50 ;water-72.75 dynes/cm 20°C). Some what higher values are shown by separated milk while cream has a lower surface tension. The colloidal constituents particularly the proteins are responsible for this lowering of surface tension –have a tendency to get concentrated at liquid/air interface. Decreased surface tension with Increase in temp./fat content CREAM RISING
When whole milk is permitted to stand, the fat rises to the top and eventually forms a layer packed with fat globules called cream. The difference in Specific Gravity between the milk serum and milk fat is one of the most important factors responsible for cream rising .
At least for the rapid and complete rising of the milk fat, the fat globules must aggregate or clump together. The rate of creaming ,then, is dependent on the factors that affect Clumping. The fat particles are held together in the clumps by the mucin - like material surrounding each fat particle . FOAMING
Milk has the property of forming foam on agitation. Foam is due to the formation of a physical phase in which air becomes incorporated in the milk with thin layers of milk separating the air bubbles from one another . The capacity for foaming is due to materials lowering the surface tension. The milk protein and fat reduce surface tension and therefore are the causes of the foaming capacity.
Milk fat not only increases the foaming capacity but also increases the stability of the foam. Milk foam is unstable and breaks down when allowed to stand.
Fresh milk exhibits a potential of +0.20 to +0.30 v at noble metal electrodes. The dissolved Oxygen plays a major role. Ascorbate, lactates , riboflavin are principal contributors. CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS Lipids
Initially milk fat is secreted in the form of a fat globule surrounded by a membrane. Each fat globule is composed almost entirely of triacylglycerols and is surrounded by a membrane consisting of complex lipids such as phospholipids, along with proteins. These act as emulsifiers which keep the individual globules from coalescing and protect the contents of these globules from various enzymes in the fluid portion of the milk. Although 97–98% of lipids are triacylglycrols, small amounts of di- and monoacylglycerols, free cholesterol and cholesterol esters, free fatty acids, and phospholipids are also present. Unlike protein and carbohydrates, fat composition in milk varies widely in the composition due to genetic, lactational, and nutritional factor difference between different species. Proteins
Normal bovine milk contains 30–35 grams of protein per liter of which about 80% is arranged in casein micelles. Caseins
The largest structures in the fluid portion of the milk are "casein micelles": aggregates of several thousand protein molecules with superficial resemblance to a surfactant micelle, bonded with the help of nanometer-scale particles of calcium phosphate. Each casein micelle is roughly spherical and about a tenth of a micrometer across. There are four different types of casein proteins: αs1-, αs2-, β-, and κ-caseins. Collectively, they make up around 76–86% of the protein in milk, by weight. Most of the casein proteins are bound into the micelles. There are several competing theories regarding the precise structure of the micelles, but they share one important feature: the outermost layer consists of strands of one type of protein, k-casein, reaching out from the body of the micelle into the surrounding fluid. These kappa-casein molecules all have a negative electrical charge and therefore repel each other, keeping the micelles separated under normal conditions and in a stable colloidal suspension in the water-based surrounding fluid.
Milk contains dozens of other types of proteins beside the caseins including enzymes. These other proteins are more water-soluble than the caseins and do not form larger structures. Because they proteins remain suspended in the whey left behind when the caseins coagulate into curds, they are collectively known as whey proteins. Whey proteins make up approximately 20% of the protein in milk, by weight.Lactoglobulin is the most common whey protein by a large margin. Salts, minerals, and vitamins
Minerals or milk salts, are traditional names for a variety of cations and anions within bovine milk. Calcium, phosphate, magnesium, sodium, potassium, citrate, and chlorine are all included as minerals and they typically occur at concentration of 5–40 mM. The milk salts strongly interact with casein, most notably calcium phosphate. It is present in excess and often, much greater excess of solubility of solid calcium phosphate. In addition to calcium, milk is a good source of many other vitamins. Vitamins A, B6, B12, C, D, K, E, thiamine, niacin, biotin, riboflavin, folates, and pantothenic acid are all present in milk. Calcium phosphate structure
For many years the most accepted theory of the structure of a micelle was that it was composed of spherical casein aggregates, called submicelles, that were held together by calcium phosphate linkages. However, there are two recent models of the casein micelle that refute the distinct micellular structures within the micelle.
The first theory attributed to de Kruif and Holt, proposes that nanoclusters of calcium phosphate and the phosphopeptide fraction of beta-casein are the centerpiece to micellular structure. Specifically in this view, unstructured proteins organize around the calcium phosphate giving rise to their structure and thus no specific structure is formed.
The second theory proposed by Horne, the growth of calcium phosphate nanoclusters begins the process of micelle formation but is limited by binding phosphopeptide loop regions of the caseins. Once bound, protein-protein interactions are formed and polymerization occurs, in which K-casein is used as an end cap, to form micelles with trapped calcium phosphate nanoclusters.
Some sources indicate that the trapped calcium phosphate is in the form of Ca9(PO4)6; whereas, others say it is similar to the structure of the mineral brushite CaHPO4 -2H2O Carbohydrates and Miscellaneous
Milk contains several different carbohydrate including lactose, glucose, galactose, and other oligosaccharides. The lactose gives milk its sweet taste and contributes approximately 40% of whole cow's milk's calories. Lactose is a disaccharide composite of two simple sugars, glucose and galactose. Bovine milk averages 4.8% anhydrous lactose, which amounts to about 50% of the total solids of skimmed milk. Levels of lactose are dependant upon the type of milk as other carbohydrates can be present at higher concentrations that lactose in milks.
Other components found in raw cow's milk are living white blood cells, mammary gland cells, various bacteria, and a large number of active enzymes. Thank You...!!! ^_^ Uses, Processes and Storage of Milk by: Catherine Ann Revilla uses of milk Milk is secreted by the mammary gland of mammals to feed their offspring. Cows milk is commonly used as human food, but milk from sheep, goats, buffalo, yak, horses and camels is also used. Milk contains large amounts of essential nutrients and has rightly been recognised as nature's single most complete food. Milk as Food Everyone in the world has drunk milk at some point in his or her life. Indeed milk is the food which exclusively sustains us during the first few months of life. All mammals produce milk to nurture their young and the composition of different milks reflect the growth and development patterns of the different mammalian species.
Consumption of milk and dairy products varies from country to country and from person to person. In the UK and northern Europe people tend to consume milk quite regularly, even as adults. As a food, milk serves the following broad purposes: (a) growth, (b) reproduction, (c) supply of energy, (d) maintenance and repair and (e) appetite satisfaction. The requirements of these categories vary with the individual, and in some instances not all the stated functions of the food need to be served.
The functions of a food are served specifically through the various nutritionally important components, comprising proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, minerals, vitamins and water. Nutritionally, milk has been defined as "the most nearly perfect food". It provides more essential nutrients in significant amounts than any other single food.
Milk is an outstanding source of calcium and phosphorus for bones and teeth, and contains riboflavin, vitamins B6, A and B1 in significant amounts. It also contains B12, the antipernicious anaemia vitamin. Use in cooking: Milk and dairy products have a big role in cooking because milk products are added in various recipes and cooking preparations such as sauces, creams, ice cream, fruit creams, etc. Milk used in Cooking Milk helps to improve the nutritional value of food. The recommended daily consumption of milk is 4 cups of milk or yogurt. It is also important to consider one slice of cheese substituting 1 cup of milk.
Other products made from milk which is used in cooking methods include cream, yogurt, butter, cheese, ice cream, lactose-free milk, etc. Afghani chicken marinated with intense aromas if also a great example for use of dairy products in cooking. The main difference between the various creams is the amount of fat in each and the method used in their production.
The fat content is important when deciding what the cream is best used for – the higher the fat, the better the cream will whip and the richer the final product will taste.
Both single and double creams are good for cooking, although the former (which contains only 18 to 20 percent fat) is more prone to separating when heated. Single or pouring cream is ideal for use in coffee or cocktails, or poured over fruit, although, unlike whipping cream, which contains more than 30 percent fat and added stabilisers, it cannot be whipped. Heavy cream, on the other hand, contains 40 percent milk fat and as a result, whips easily to a thick consistency.
Finally, when it comes to double cream, you’re looking at a fat content as high as 48 percent, which makes this cream easy to whip and utterly sublime on scones. Yogurt adds nutritional goodness, a distinctive taste, creamy texture, and wonderful moistness to your cooking.
Yogurt can be used in dips and dressings—as a substitute for mayonnaise or sour cream in equal amounts—to reduce calories and fat. It is a useful addition to marinades; its high acidity helps tenderize meat.
Cultured foods, such as yogurt, make for incredibly moist baked goods. While you will not get the health benefits of the bacteria, yogurt will still provide valuable nutrients such as calcium and protein. Using yogurt as a substitute for buttermilk, sour cream, or butter will also reduce the calories and fat.
Freezing yogurt—which is called for in many dessert recipes—doesn’t harm the bacteria. Cheese is one of the most versatile, most nutritious of foods, so it is used frequently by homemakers in meal planning and food preparation. When cooking cheese, always keep the heat low. Cheese needs just enough heat to melt and blend with other ingredients. High heat or long cooking makes cheese tough and stringy. Dry heat, prolonged baking or high temperatures will produce leathery texture. Lactose free milk has an enzyme called lactase added to break the glucose down for easier digestion. The two resulting sugars, glucose and galactose, tend to taste slightly sweeter once separated, but otherwise the milk is unchanged. Substitute lactose free milk for milk in recipes like soups and casseroles for sweet creamy success. Flavour Booster for Corn – Milk is often used to enhance the flavour of coffee and pastries. Surprisingly, it also has the same effect on corn. Pour some milk on the water used to boil corn then stir. When both ingredients have been mixed, place the corn in the mixture. Leave it in the pot until the mixture boils. Now, get the corn and take a bite. You will notice a rich sweet taste that will make you crave for more. Fish Taste Enhancer – Fish and milk have pretty distinct tastes. The funny thing is, you can actually use milk to enhance the taste of fish. Get a frozen salmon or blue marlin from the freezer and thaw it in a bowl filled with milk. After cooking, the fish will have a richer flavor and a smoother texture. While milk buttresses your immune system and strengthens your bones, it also provides a source of potassium, vitamins, calcium, proteins and other nutrients that can be applied externally to your skin.
Cleopatra was known to soak in milk baths, allowing the milky water to soften and moisturize her skin. Simple milk mixtures can be used as creams, masks and tonics to make your skin more radiant and healthy. Milk used as Beauty Regimen 1. Facial Mask – With milk’s moisturizing properties, you can use the dairy product to create a skin-pampering facial mask. Prepare half a cup of milk powder then add a little water. Stir the mixture until a fairly thick paste is formed. Once done, spread the milk facial mask on your face and let it rest for about 30 minutes. Wash your face then rinse right after. Your skin will be softer and will have a nice healthy glow, as if you used an actual facial mask. 2. Hand Soap – Overworked hands are susceptible to skin hardening and the development of calluses. Pamper your hands by applying cold milk to the calluses and hardened layers of skin. You will have a pair of soft and clean hands right after. If your skin remains hard, just apply cold milk three times a day. Eventually, you will notice the difference before the week ends. 3. Shaving Cream Substitute – If you run out of shaving cream, you can use milk as a worthy substitute. Mix a generous amount of powdered milk with a little water. When a thick paste has been formed, apply it on your face before shaving. It may not be as smooth as shaving cream but it will produce the same results nonetheless. 4. Milk Bath – Milk happens to be a popular bathtub item. Not only is it a better moisturizer than some soaps, it is also an effective skin softener. Fill one half to three fourths of your bathtub with milk. Once done, go ahead and take a dip. Let the white bathwater work on your skin for about 30 minutes to an hour. After your bath, you will certainly have soft and better-looking skin. 5. Makeup Remover – Blush-ons, foundations, and other female facial enhancements latch on to your face like adhesives. It usually takes a while before you can completely wash them off your face. You can make the process easier by switching water with a mixture of powdered milk and warm water. Apply the solution on the makeup and in a matter of minutes, your face will be back to its natural state. Relief for Sunburn – Sunburn, caused by the prolonged exposure to sunlight, is pretty painful. The burnt skin will sting even at the slightest hint of contact. You can relieve yourself of the discomfort by creating a milk-based sunburn solution. Mix powdered milk with water and two pinches of salt. Apply the solution on the burnt spots and after a while, you’ll feel better. Milk used in Medicinal Purposes Relief for Insect Bites – Milk, being a natural moisturizer, eases the itchiness of insect bites. Its enzymes also help relieve the swelling. To relieve yourself from bug bites, create a mixture from milk, water and salt, then apply it on the insect bites. After a few moments, the welts will still be there but the redness and itching will either be gone or significantly reduced. Milk, with its thick base, when applied on furniture, clothes, silverwares and other materials can dislodge dirt and some stains. As you can see, milk is just like a toolbox when it comes to household functions. Milk used as Cleaning Agents and Other Purposes 1. Ink Stain Remover – Milk’s thick and creamy base is a better stain remover than water. Just soak an ink stain in a milk–lemon juice mixture for the entire day and it will fade or even disappear. You can speed up the stain-removing process by scrubbing the ink blotches while soaked in the dairy product.
2. Furniture Cleaner and Polisher – Combining milk’s creamy base with lemon juice’s acidity creates an exceptional furniture cleaner. Milk’s heavy base will have no problems pushing away dust and dirt, while lemon juice takes care of the stains and disease-causing microbes. You can add essential oil to the mix, so your cleaner will leave a refreshing scent on your furniture. 3. Shine Shoes and Leather Items – Get a rag and soak it in milk. Apply it on your leather shoes, bags and other leather-based items for a nice quick shine.
4. Plant Cleaner – For owners of themed gardens, you can clean your plants using skimmed milk. The beverage’s thick base, when scrubbed, can dislodge dirt, sap and stains off of leaves. Just make sure that you rinse it off of your plants after cleaning. Remember, dried milk and milk residue can soil and stain your leaves. 5. Repair cracked china - Before you throw out that cracked plate from your grandmother’s old china set, try mending it with milk. Place the plate in a pan, cover it with milk (fresh or reconstituted powdered milk), and bring to a boil. As soon as it starts to boil, lower the heat and simmer for about 45 minutes. The protein in the milk will miraculously meld most fine cracks. Processes of Milk Step 1 – Rearing
Dairy cows typically spend their days eating, sleeping, and ruminating or chewing their cud. Cows in some dairy farms wander around and eat fresh grass (i.e. grazing). In other farms, they are fed grain, hay, or silage (conserved forage) and remain all day in close quarters known as confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs), some of which house thousands of animals. How Milk Gets from the Cow to the Store Many large dairy farms utilize growth hormones and antibiotics during the rearing process to artificially increase a cow's milk production and to decrease the spread of infectious diseases among their cows. Step 2 – Harvesting
In the Past:
A cow is ready to be milked when her udder is full. The farmer has some flexibility when making a schedule of cow milking times. Usually, cows are milked in the early morning and again in the late afternoon. It is possible to milk a cow by hand. However, milking a whole herd of cows twice a day in this manner would take a great deal of time and energy. Before the invention of milking machines, people milked their dairy cows by hand by squeezing gently on the cow's teats using the thumb and forefinger.
Some people continue to milk a little by hand today. Today:
Cows are normally milked at least twice a day. Milking time takes about five minutes per cow depending on the type of machine and the amount of milk the cow is producing. Most dairies have enough machines to milk more than 20 cows at one time. Milking machines mimic the action of a young calf by creating a pulsating vacuum around the teat, which causes the milk to be released from the udder. Step 3 – Storing
Milk storage vats or silos are refrigerated and come in various shapes and sizes. Milk is usually stored on the farm at 39 degrees Fahrenheit, or colder, for no more than 48 hours. Vats and silos are agitated to make sure that the entire volume remains cold and that the milkfat does not separate from the milk. After milk has been collected, storage vats and stainless steel pipes are thoroughly cleaned before the farmer milks again. Step 4 – Transportation
Milk is collected from the farm every 24 or 48 hours. The tankers that are used have special stainless steel bodies which are heavily insulated to keep the milk cold during transportation to the processing factory. Milk tanker drivers are accredited milk graders, qualified to evaluate the milk prior to collection. Tanker drivers grade and if necessary reject milk based on temperature, sight, and smell. A representative sample is collected from each farm pickup prior to being pumped onto the tanker. After collection, milk is transported to factory sites and stored in refrigerated silos before processing. Step 5 - Lab Testing
Samples of milk are taken from farm vats prior to collection and from the bulk milk tanker upon arrival at the factory. Samples from the bulk milk tanker are tested for antibiotics and temperature before the milk enters the factory processing area. Farm milk samples are tested for milkfat, protein, bulk milk cell count and bacteria count. If milk does not meet quality standards it is rejected. Most farmers are paid on the quality and composition of their milk. Step 6 – Processing
Whole milk, once approved for use, is pumped into storage silos where it undergoes pasteurization, homogenization, separation and further processing.
Involves heating every particle of milk to a specific temperature for a specified period of time and cooling it again without allowing recontamination. Homogenization:
Involves pushing the raw milk through an atomizer to form tiny particles so that the fat is dispersed evenly throughout the milk, stopping the fat from floating to the top of the container.
Involves spinning milk through a centrifuge to separate the cream from the milk. After separation, the cream and remaining milk are remixed to provide the desired fat content for the different types of milk being produced. For "whole milk," the cream is reintroduced until the fat content reaches 3.25%. For "low fat milk," the fat content is 1%. For "skim milk" (sometimes called nonfat milk) the fat content is .05%.
Includes micro-filtration, increasing the storage life by ultra high temperature (UHT) treatment, and mixing or culturing milk for flavored and yogurt products. Step 7 – Packaging
Now the milk is ready to be packaged for delivery to the stores. The milk travels through pipes to the automatic packaging machines that fills and seals the milk into paper cartons or plastic jugs. As the containers move through the assembly line, a date is printed on each of them to show how long the milk will stay fresh. Step 8 – Selling
After packaging, the milk is finally ready for the customers, and it is stored in a big, refrigerated room until it is delivered to stores to be sold. Storage of
Milk Refrigeration is the single most important factor in maintaining the quality of milk. By law, Grade A milk must be maintained at a temperature below 40F. It is critical that these temperatures be maintained through warehousing, distribution, delivery and storage. Remember temperature is the most important factor. Check the expiration dates on milk before you purchase. Harmful bacteria can grow rapidly in milk above 40F. Refrigerate milk promptly after purchase and each use. Protecting Milk Quality Infants, pregnant mothers, the elderly and the immune compromised are most susceptible to spoiled milk.
Properly refrigerated, milk will last about 2 weeks. The colder milk is kept the longer it lasts. When it comes to milk, there are a number of things that you can do to keep it fresh. Here are some handy tips and tricks to get the most from your milk:
At the supermarket:
When shopping, pick up the milk last so it doesn’t warm up while you fill your basket. Refrigerate at 4°C as soon as possible after purchase. How to Store Milk When purchasing milk, make sure to check the "sell-by" date to ensure your milk is fresh. At home:
Use the freshest milk possible and always use by the “best before date”. Buy smaller amounts more often rather than storing open, larger containers in the refrigerator.
Remember to open new milk containers in the same order in which you bought them. First in the fridge, first out. Keep milk containers closed and store away from strong-smelling food items in the fridge - the milk can pick up those odours.
Store milk on refrigerator shelves where it is cooler, rather than in the refrigerator doors.
Whenever possible, leave milk in its original container to safeguard its flavour and food value. Avoid exposing milk to light - light affects its riboflavin, folate and vitamin B12 content and can cause “off” flavours.
To avoid spoilage, do not return unused milk from a serving pitcher to the original container.
All non-refrigerated, opened milk products are perishable. Opened containers of canned and UHT milk must be refrigerated. Opened canned milk should be immediately transferred to a clean glass container and should be covered. Use it within three weeks of opening. If stored in a cool, dry place, powdered milk will keep for up to one year. Once the package is opened, it should be used within two months. After being reconstituted, it should be stored and treated the same as regular fluid milk.
Milk can be frozen for up to 3 weeks, however, upon thawing it can separate and lose its smooth texture. Partly skimmed and skim milk freeze better than whole milk. If it separates upon thawing, beat it with an electric mixer or an immersion blender with the whip attachment. Extra evaporated milk can be frozen in an airtight container with no adverse effects.
If freezing foods such as soups or stews, add the milk after you reheat the thawed food. In the case of other dairy products, such as cheese and yogurt, bacteria play an important role in flavor, function and good health. Most yogurts, including yogurts made in California, are made by the addition of two or more types of bacteria, including Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus. These types of bacteria are called "cultures" and work to create distinct flavors and textures in the yogurt. Mold and Dairy Products To ensure the safety of your yogurt, store it in the refrigerator in its original sealed container.
Moldy yogurt should be discarded. Cheese is also the product of cultures and an aging process that causes fermentation. There is a wide range of production methods that yield many different flavours and forms of cheese. In general, you should follow the same storage tips as milk and yogurt. If mold is on cheese, the block of cheese can generally still be eaten. If a small patch of mold appears on a piece of cheese, trim it off completely by cutting at least one-quarter inch below the mold and plan to consume the cheese soon. Always check the "sell-by" date before you purchase cheese. If there is mold on fresh cheese, do not purchase it. HeAlTh BeNeFiTs Of MiLk by: Donna Maye Dimaano Health benefits of milk include good bone health, smooth skin, strong immune system, prevention of illnesses such as hypertension, dental decay, dehydration, respiratory problems, obesity, osteoporosis and even some forms of cancer. Milk is extremely beneficial drink for mankind. Some of the advantages of drinking this life-giving nectar are as follows: Calcium: Milk is the best source of calcium supply to our body. Calcium protects the body from major chronic ailments such as cancerous chemicals, bone loss, arthritic condition, migraine headaches, pre-menstrual syndrome, and obesity in children and aids in losing unwanted fats. Healthy Bones: As mentioned above, milk is rich in calcium, which is very essential for growth and proper development of strong bone structure. Healthy Teeth: Encouraging children and youngsters to drink milk would give them excellent dental health, as milk protects the enamel surface against acidic substances. Rehydration: Fluids are an integral part of human body. The body needs to be replenished with liquids at regular intervals. It is very essential for growing children and they must drink at least six to eight glasses of fluid every day. Milk contains a good quantity of water molecules and is considered the best fluid for rehydration. Skin Care: Milk is also good for dry skin. Milk is known to benefit our skin by helping us maintain a fair and smooth complexion. The milk solids nourish and smoothen your skin. The lactic acid present in milk is known to aid in removing the dead skin cells, thereby rejuvenating your skin. Less Stress
Milk is a great way to de-stress at the end of the day. A glass of warm milk will help to relax tense muscles and soothe frayed nerves. Milk has also been proven to reduce symptoms of PMS and boost energy. The next time you are feeling frazzled, try drinking a glass of milk while you soak in a bubble bath. Healthy Body
Milk has properties that lower high blood pressure and risk of strokes. It reduces the liver’s production of cholesterol, and it can act as an antacid. Vitamins A and B in milk can help build good eyesight. Milk has also been show to help lower risk of certain cancers. There are also some disadvantages that drinking milk entails. High Calories: For people who suffer from obesity and are out to lose weight, milk is going to dent their plans severely, as it is high in calories and contributes more calories than what is required by the body. High in Saturated Fats: Milk does not only add extra calories, but it adds extra fat calories. And the fats, being saturated fats, are also of the unhealthy kind. Lactose Intolerance Problems: Milk contains a high quantity of lactose, which is a milk-sugar. Many people find lactose very hard to digest and hence drinking milk can cause stomach upsets for people. Allergies: People who have milk allergies get rashes and digestive problems, which is why it is best avoided by such people BSHRM 3-1D Milk Varieties, Packaging and Famous Brands by: Emely Motol Milk Varieties Today milk appears on the market in many forms to appeal to varied tastes of consumers and to satisfy their demands. A wide line of products has been developed to improve keeping quality, facilitate distribution and storage, make maximum use of by-products, and preserve surplus. The processing involved in producing each form of milk is designed and controlled to protect the health of the consumer. Some forms of milk are available in all communities; others may be found in only a few communities. Standards of composition are generally established by state and local governments for all fluid milk products. Federal standards of identity have been established only on evaporated, condensed, and nonfat dry milk. Many states define whole milk as milk that contains not less than 3.25 percent milk fat and not less than 8.25 percent milk solids-not-fat. At the milk plant, the milk from different farms is pooled and "standardized" to meet or exceed the minimum legal requirements. The standards of composition, however, vary with the different states. Even within the state, the milk composition may be well above the minimum standard. Milk of higher milk solids-not-fat and milk fat is available in most markets. This may be a premium product, or milk from certain breeds of cows that is sold by breed name in many communities. Whole fresh milk A flavored milk is whole milk with syrup or powder containing a wholesome flavoring agent, and sugar added. A flavored milk drink, or dairy drink, is skim or partially skimmed milk similarly flavored and sweetened. These milks are pasteurized, and usually homogenized. Flavored milk and drinks Lowfat milk is milk from which sufficient milkfat has been removed to produce a food having, within limits of good manufacturing practice, one of the following milkfat contents: 1/2, 1, 1-1/2, or 2 percent. Lowfat milk is pasteurized or ultra-pasteurized, contains added vitamin A as prescribed by paragraph above of this section, and contains not less than 8-1/4 percent milk solids-not-fat. Lowfat milk may be homogenized. Low fat milk Skim Milk is milk from which sufficient milkfat has been removed to reduce its milkfat content to less than 0.5 percent. Skim milk that is in final package form for beverage use shall have been pasteurized or ultra-pasteurized, shall contain added vitamin A as prescribed by the paragraph of this section, and shall contain not less than 8-1/4 percent milk solids-not-fat. Skim Milk . Its certification on the container means that the conditions under which it was produced and distributed conform with the high standards for cleanliness set forth by the American Association of Medical Milk Commissions. . Certified Milk continues to be available in only a few communities. Where it is available, it may be either raw or pasteurized, though most Certified Milk is now being pasteurized. It also may be homogenized. It may be fortified with vitamin D. Certified Milk Homogenized, pasteurized, whole milk can be quickly frozen and kept below -10°F for six weeks to three months. Like concentrated frozen milk, it must be used soon after defrosting. This milk, used on ships and at overseas military installations, is not ordinarily available in retail markets. Frozen whole milk it is considered desirable to modify cows's milk so that the curd tension is considerably less, and the curd formed in digestion is softer. In digestion, the curd formed from soft curd milk tends to leave the stomach more quickly than does the curd of ordinary milk. Soft curd milk Ninety percent or more of the sodium that occurs naturally in milk can be removed by a process of ion-exchange. Fresh whole milk is passed through an ion-exchange resin to replace the sodium in milk with potassium. The milk is pasteurized and homogenized Low sodium milk Canned Whole Milk that is homogenized, sterilized at 270° to 280°F. for 8 to 10 seconds, and canned aseptically, is available chiefly for use on ships or for export. It can be stored at room temperature until opened, after which it requires refrigeration. Canned Whole milk Milk Packaging All milk packaging must meet strict requirements for food safety. Out of the many types of packaging, only certain ones can be used for each type of milk product. Powdered milk doesn't have the same storage requirements as liquid milk, and 2-percent milk is stored differently than evaporated milk. One thing all kinds of milk packaging share is the necessity of maintaining the freshness and protecting the flavor of the milk product. PACKAGING Paper Based
Cartons made from wax or plastic coated paper board are probably one of the most widely known types of milk packaging. From school cafeterias to home kitchens, milk cartons are easily stored in the refrigerator to keep liquid milk fresh longer and come in a variety of sizes. Another paper-based package is a cardboard box, which is used for dry milk powder. Paper-based packaging is lightweight and low cost, but it's susceptible to moisture and tearing. Plastic
Another common packaging material for milk is plastic. Whether used for jugs in various sizes or made into packets, plastic is used to hold fresh and pasteurized milk. Some of the drawbacks of plastic containers include becoming fragile at low temperatures and melting at high temperatures. Glass
A lot of times, when people think of glass milk packaging, they think of the days of milkmen delivering fresh dairy goods in glass bottles to the door early in the morning in. Glass bottles are still used today by some dairy manufacturers, although they aren't as widely used as plastic or paper-based packaging. While glass is heat resistant, it is also heavy and fragile. Metal
Both aluminum and tin are used to make cans for milk products, such as evaporated milk and sweetened condensed milk. Some of the advantages to using metal packaging are the strength of the material, grease-proof qualities, and the barrier properties. One drawback to aluminum is its vulnerability to acids. Tin tends to be heavy and expensive. Wood
Barrels made from wood are used for bulk packaging of such milk products as sweetened condensed milk and buttermilk. Wooden barrels must meet high requirements for quality to avoid tainting the milk and are sometimes coated with wax or plastic to make the barrel waterproof. Famous Brands NESTLE MC ARTHUR DAIRY SHURFRESH HERSHEY’S KROGER