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Hatshepsut vs Ramesses II

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on 10 July 2014

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Transcript of Hatshepsut vs Ramesses II

Hatshepsut vs Ramesses II
HATSHEPSUT
Background Information
Hatshepsut was a gifted and smart leader. She remained in power for 20 years and was the longest ruling female pharaoh. Rather than go to war, she established trade relationships with many foreign countries. Through trade she made Egypt a rich nation. Her time of rule was a time of peace and prosperity. One way that Hatshepsut stayed in power was to construct many buildings and monuments throughout Egypt. She also had many statues of herself at these sites. This way the people continued to think of her as their leader and pharaoh. Hatshepsut was clever and unique individual. She used various strategies during her reign. Hatshepsut announced herself as pharaoh and invented a co-regency with her father. She made herslef look like she had connection to the gods. She convinced the people to believe her because she made up stories about the gods speaking to her and her mother while she was still in her mother's womb. Hatshepsut made her people believe that Amon-Ra had visited her pregnant mother at the temple in Deir el-Bahri in the Valley of the Kings. Hatshepsut made her kingship more realistic by attaching a false beard, wearing male clothing and had statues of he dressed as a pharaoh. . It may be that if she had ruled strictly with a more feminine-looking disposition she may not have been so readily accepted by the masses. Her strategy seemed to work and the priests supported her reign as pharaoh. Hatshepsut lived for about 50 years. She died around 1458BC.

Hatshepsut's
Achievements
Orange =
Trade
Green =
Building
Blue =
Military
Court and Priesthood =
Pink
Hatshepsut was born in 1508BC. She was the first and the most powerful of the female pharaohs. Hatshepsut was born an egyptian princess under Thutmose I. Her brothers and sisters all died at a young age so she was an only child when she became Pharaoh. Thutmose I decided to name Hatshepsut's step-brother as heir. Hatshepsut married her step-brother Thutmose II to keep the royal blood line intact. Her dad died soon after her marriage. Thutmose II became ruler but died after a few years of ruling. A problem was faced because Hatshepsut had not had any male children with Thutmose II. The only male heir to the throne was Hatshepsut's nephew, Thutmose III. He was crowned the Pharaoh of Egypt at such a young age so Hashepsut was named regent. She would run the country for him until her was old enough to rule himself. Hatshepsut was a powerful and intelligent leader. After a few years of being regent she decided to become Pharaoh. She took charge of the country.
Hatshepsut vs RamesSes II
Ramesses II
Background Information
Ramesses II was one of the greatest pharaohs of all time. He accomplished many things during his reign. His best known accomplishments are his military and architectural accomplishments. The Ramesseum and Abu Simbel are most commonly known buildings. The Ramesseum was a memorial temple complex situated close to Luxor and even closer to Qurna. The Abu Simbel is 2 massive twin rock temples located in Nubia, South Egypt. The temples commemorated many of his victories. Ramesses II also established cities in Ancient Egypt such as Pi-Ramesses, an ancient city in the Nile delta, used for his campaigns in Syria. Ramesses' most famous battle is the Battle of Kadesh, which took place at the city of Kadesh (situated in present day Syria). Ramses II secured Egypt's borders from foreign invaders along the Mediterranean and in Libya. Overall Ramesses was an excellent warrior, a dedicated religious man and a creative ruler. Ramesses lived for 90 year. He died in 1213BC. Health problems like arthritis and arterial issues may have contributed to Ramesses' death.


ramesses II's
Achievements
Military =
Orange
Religion =
Green
Buildings =
Blue
Buildings (continued) =
Pink
Ramesses II was born in 1303 BC. He one of the greatest Ancient Egyptian pharaohs who reigned in the 19th Dynasty. He is also referred to as “Ramesses the Great” due to his great accomplishments that he achieved during his 66 year reign.

He was born a son to Pharaoh Seti I and Queen Tuya and was named after his grandfather Ramesses I. Ramesses II accomplished much more during his reign compared to the many pharaohs that had ruled before and after him. Ramesses was also known to excel at being a great warrior, builder, family and religious man. We know this due to the many temples built during his reign that are still standing today. The hieroglyphics in his temples and buildings of list the various accomplishments during his lifetime and helps us visualise his undertakings throughout his life.
The man was very clever in a political way and he managed to outsmart many of his enemies. He left behind many great monuments which show us what a smart and powerful leader he really was. Ramesses also fathered over 100 children and had many wives. This also made it harder for him but he still carried on as a strong leader. His most loved wife was Nefertari. He also outlived at least 12 of his sons and many of his wives and grandchildren during his lifetime.
Trade:

Hatshepsut re-established trade networks that had not fully recovered from the expulsion of the Hyksos at the end of the Second Intermediate Period. She sent expeditions to the Sinai to obtain precious gems and other supplies. Her name is recorded at the Turquoise mines at Serabit el Khadim. She also sent an expedition to Punt (thought to be Somalia) which returned with a huge variety of precious gems, incense, trees, animals and other luxuries. This achievement was recorded in her Mortuary Temple at Deir el –Bahari.
Buildings:
A large quantity of beautifully executed statues were created during her reign. Examples can be found in museums all over the world. Hatshepsut was one of the most creative builders of all of the pharaohs of Ancient Egypt. To achieve her building plans she employed two great architects; Ineni (who had been employed by both her husband and father) and Senenmut. She placed two huge obelisks at the entrance of the Temple of Amun at Karnak and built the Red Chapel (or Chapelle Rouge) within the temple precinct. To celebrate her sixteenth year as pharaoh she ordered the construction of two more huge obelisks. One of them broke during construction and can still be seen at the quarry near Aswan (The Unfinished Obelisk).
She also restored some smaller shrines in Middle Egypt in particular the shrine of Speos Artemidos (at Beni Hasan) dedicated to the lion-goddess Pakhet. Senenmut designed her crowning glory, Djeser-djeseru ( her Mortuary Temple at Deir el –Bahari.). The temple precincts are considered to be among the most beautiful ever constructed.

Military
Many people thought that as a woman Hatshepsut was not interested in military achievements and that the expedition to Punt was just a way of keeping the army occupied. It is also suggested that she sent the army off on unimportant missions in order to keep Thutmose III out of the way. In her defence, it has been thought that the vassals of Egypt did not oppose Hatshepsut becoming pharaoh (a sure indication that she was not considered to be weak or vulnerable) yet a number of them became restless when she died. There is also some evidence that she did lead campaigns in Nubia, the Levant, and Syria. Furthermore, there is evidence that Thutmose III became the Commander in Chief of Hatshepsut´s army and conducted out a short, victorious campaign in the Levant on her behalf. As the junior co-regent pharaoh this would be entirely in line with the training he needed to act as sole pharaoh. It also makes it less likely that she intended to rob him of his right to rule because placing your enemies in charge of the army is rarely an expected move.

Courts and Priesthood
Hatshepsut would not have been able to rule Egypt without the support of the nobles and the priesthood, in particular the priests of Amun. She was supported by a number of loyal advisers. Many of them had also served her husband and her father including; the Viziers Hapuseneb and Useramun, Royal Steward Senenmut, Nubian general Nehsi, Seal bearer Ahmose Pen Nekhbet, second prophet of Amun Puyemre, Senimen and Ineni.

She supported and was supported by the priests of Amun and her position as pharaoh was confirmed by the Siwa oracle.
Military:

Ramesses II's most famous battle is the Battle of Kadesh, which took place at the city of Kadesh (situated in present day Syria). Fought in 1274 BC against the Hittites, it was the largest chariot battle ever. Ramesses made a strategic error in that fight by dividing his forces, causing one of his divisions to be swept away. None of the parties gained victory and Ramesses had to retreat from the battle. The military genius of Ramesses II helped to secure Egypt's borders from foreign invaders and pirates along the Mediterranean and in Libya. He managed to stop invasions from the Hittites and Nubians.
 
His campaigns restored land to Egypt that had been lost to these empires by forming peace treaties with them. Ramesses II helped to strengthen Egypt's borders on all sides, increasing it's stability. Many of these campaigns were completed in the first twenty years of Ramesses II's reign.

Religion:
Ramesses had a strong religious impact on Egypt . After reigning for thirty years, Ramesses II celebrated the Sed festival, in which the king was turned into a God. Ramesses II damaged the monuments of previous reigning dynasties which had fallen out of favour. Since the people of Egypt worshiped Ramesses II as a god, it also helped to ensure that his son, who at that point commanded the army, would rise to power following his death, without anyone trying to seize the throne.

Buildings:
The Ramesseum was a memorial temple complex situated close to Luxor and even closer to Qurna. Although it is in ruins now, it is still recognisable for the large Pylon of Ramesses inside. Pylon is a Greek word for the entrance of an Egyptian temple. Inside the Ramesseum are inscriptions with images showing Ramesses' victories over the Hittites in war and the following peace treaty that occurred. Ramesses' building showed that he wanted to be remembered for his influence on military, political, and religious life. There are also remains of a large Ramesses II statue at the Ramesseum. It used to be 17 metres high but only parts of the middle-body and base remain.


Ramesses also built the Abu Simbel. The Abu Simbel is constructed from two temples. The temples were built to commemorate Ramesses' victory at the Battle of Kadesh. To represent the battle, the base of the temple was carved with figures of bound captives. They were also built to intimidate Egypt's neighbours, the Nubians. He wanted to make an impression upon Egypt’s neighbours, as well as to force Egypt’s religion upon them. He also wanted to dedicate the Small Temple to his most loved queen, Nefertari. It is also dedicated to the ancient Egyptian goddess Hathor. Ramesses dedicated the Great Temple he had built to honour himself and the god Re-Horakhty. The construction of Abu Simbel started around 1244 BC and was finished around 1224 BC. The Abu SImbel is situated in Nubia (South Egypt), close to Lake Nasser.
Buildings (continued):
Who was the Better Pharaoh
Both Ramesses II and Hatshepsut were exceptional and smart leaders. I think Hatshepsut was a courageous and cunning leader because she took on a male’s job, she made Egypt wealthy through trade and she was the longest reigning woman Pharaoh. I think Ramesses was also a brave, creative and intelligent leader because he fought in many wars and battles and claimed many victories. I think the better leader was Ramesses II. He conquered new land and made many more monuments like the Abu Simbel and the Ramesseum. He fought in the Battle of Kadesh and had many great and wise strategies. Many of his buildings are still standing today. Ramesses II also fathered over 100 children and ruled at the same time. He wasn’t afraid of a challenge whereas Hatshepsut was more afraid to battle. Ramesses II made a stronger impact on Egypt and was a more accomplished leader. He accomplished much more than any of the pharaohs that ruled before and after then him. Overall Ramesses II was a leader that encouraged peace across Egypt.
What makes a good leader?
The better leader is always thinking ahead. They work to master their own environment with the goal of avoiding problems before they occur. Good leaders adapt to new surroundings and handle themselves well in uncomfortable situations. Good leaders need to listen and understand the needs of others. They should be humble but enthusiastic. Good leaders need to be consistent in making the best decisions. A good leader also needs to have good initiative.
Which Pharaoh had the most Traits of a good leader?
Ranesses II was an excellent and cunning leader. He adapted well to new surroundings and handled uncomfortable situations. He demonstrated these skills in battles and finding new locations like Pi-Ramesses. He was consistent in making good decisions which were showed in his many victories and achievements of battles, like the Battle of Kadesh, buildings, like the Ramesseum and Abu Simbel. Ramesses could have been a better listener and understanding of others needs but on the other hand he had great initiative. Overall Ramesses made egypt stronger and bigger and won many battle titles for his country.
Hatshepsut was also a great leader. She avoided many problems before they occurred and handled herself well in uncomfortable situations. However she was not strong at adapting to new surroundings and she did not explore the land. She was very smart and excelled in trade. She made Egypt rich with jewels and gems. Hatshepsut was a good listener and was very understanding. She was consistent in making good decisions in trade. She didn't have the best initiative but was still a very strong leader.
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