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Local Dairy Farm
Transcript of Local Dairy Farm
: Safe and responsible waste management practices
Capacity of manure pit, amount of fertilizer allowed on crops, storage space
Nicomekl farm and Kitzel farm are close to the Nicomekl river. It is important that waste is properly managed so that is does not contaminate the local ecosystem
: To provide food for the herd.
: Amount of land dedicated to crops
Kitzel farm: provided ~50% of feed for cows, Nicomekl: >50% grown on the farm
Growing crops on site is more economically efficient
The manure made on the farm can be used as fertilizer, benefiting waste management practices.
: To provide nutrients for an adequate diet for the cows to optimize milk production
: The number of cows on site
The diet directly affects the quality of milk produced
Diet and intake of nutrients is determined by human input (i.e. Veterinarians and Farmers)
: To optimize milk production
Their living environment which affects their health and happiness
Female cows only produce milk after they have given birth
Happy and healthy cows have highest milk production (and highest quality)
If the space is too crowded, it increases the stress levels and decreases the production of milk
Nicomekl: organic standards require certain levels of access to pasture
: To ensure milking cows are producing, and that they also have a break
: The amount of non-milking cows on site
Baby cows are raised on the farm until they are a certain age.
Kitzel farm: both bull and heifer calves are sold
Nicomekl: bulls are sold and heifers are transported to another site where they are raised until they are pregnant
Dry cows are when heifers are not producing milk and are not pregnant
Dead cows are put in manure pit or shipped to Alberta
Sick cows are treated and removed from milk production until their antibiotic treatment is finished
Climate and weather
Sunlight and water
Ecosystems and wildlife
Employees on and off the farm
milk testing, animal health, quality and quantity of milk, bacteria count, hormone levels
Bylaws may be enforced by municipality affecting land and farm use depending on where the farm is located
Bylaws protecting local water quality like the Nicomekl river
These bylaws directly affect the Nicomekl and Kitzel Dairy farm. They have to be extremely careful in proper waste management or else it will potentially negatively impact the surrounding ecosystems
Bylaws affecting the relationships between farms and their neighbouring residential areas (Control of smell, road usage, etc.)
Access to highways affects transportation and interaction between the different actors in the system
Controlled resources (like power and water) are vital to everyday functioning of the farm
These are important factors that affect the productivity of the farm
Infrastructure is an important economic growth factor in sustaining an operational farm
As part of the community, the local dairy farms are conscious of creating positive relationships
Farmer to farmer interaction
: exchange of knowledge and practices that are successful in dairy farming
: knowledge exchange and education to the local community related to the dairy system (i.e. UBC/school tours)
Processing and Packaging
Marketing, Production and Delivery (Media)
All milk is required to be pasteurized and undergo sterile packaging before it is sold for human consumption
Almost all milk is processed within BC but a small percentage is sent to Alberta because it is closer to transport there 
The Milk Industry Act
- sets standards and regulation in the processing and sale of milk
Includes standards of processing and pasteurization of raw milk, sale of pasteurized milk 
The Ministry Agricultural Act of BC
- enforces standards on production, marketing, processing and mechandising of agricultural food products
Including buying, storage, transportation and disposal of products 
BC Milk Marketing Board
- regulation of milk production and marketing 
BC Dairy Foundation
- develops and executes fluid dairy promotional plans
This includes education to school and public, facilitating school milk programs
Organizing public events
Dealing with dairy related public relations and media 
BC Milk Producers Association
- represents dairy producers in the province
Policy development and crisis management
Animal welfare, advocacy, environmental issues
Trade policy and communication with industry associates 
Milk products are available to purchase at grocery stores, restaurant and fast food establishments
Milk is also available at schools through BC's School Milk Program 
Milk is provided in hospitals
Distribution is the an important median between processing and consumption
Health and Safety of Employees and Animals
BC's Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act
Requirements for the care and handling of dairy cattle
Provides the right for safe work environment for employees
Provides compensation for employees unable to work
Ministry of Health of BC
Provides health plans and services for BC Residents
Marketing and Regulations
Food Regulations and Safety Standards
Dairy Farmers of Canada
- Represents the interests of dairy farmers in Canada
Canadian Dairy Commission
- Contributes to production by monitoring demand and recommending adjustments to the National Production Target
Canadian Milk Supply Management Committee
- Sets the National Production Target which limits the total quota distribution (milk production allowance)
Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA)
- Responsible for the health and safety standards of food products
When dairy products are Certified Organic they must comply with
Canadian Organic Standards
Organic Product Regulations
National market development and promotion of industrial milk products
Industry advocacy with governments
Lobbying on national Regulations
Trade policy and national policy Issues
Dairy Farmers of Canada
- Represents the economic and industrial interests of all dairy producers 
- Informs consumers on recommended servings as stated by Canada's Food Guide
Multiple dairy products are available to consumers such as milk, creams, yogurt, cheese, ice cream and more
Canada's Food Guide Recommends milk servings depending on age, and gender
There are competing milk alternative products such as soy, and almond beverages
Milk consumption by consumers directly affects the amount of milk produced each year in BC.
The infrastructure provides some physical boundaries on the farm
Barns to house the cows
Homes of the farmers
: Labor, money, transportation and technology are used in all components of the farm
: Manure is re-used as fertilizer for the crops
The community where the farm is located impacts the production of the farm. Community serves as a boundary to the farm given its immediate surroundings and their relationships with dairy farm. All of these components influence local dairy farm practices.
: Milk, animal manure, and greenhouse gas emissions
: Food and nutrition for the cows
: Desire environment to generate crops
: Waste is appropriately recycled back into the environment
The Local Dairy Farm provides a boundary between production on the farm and processing at the provincial level. Within the local farm there are physical boundaries of the infrastructure and limitations implemented by human and natural resources
Dairy Farms main
is raw milk
Requires labor and transportation to move to processing
destination within the
BC Provides another boundary to the dairy system. Standards and regulations are set affecting producers, processors and distributors province wide. There are also policies and acts in place to represent the best interests of BC Dairy Farmers, the BC Dairy Industry, the employees and animal welfare on the farms, and the consumers.
: Standardize the quality of milk products, and its production to distribution practices, while satisfying the production levels allocated by the Federal Government
Establishes where milk is bought, sold and promoted
Human resources: technology and transportation are required to move products
: Processed dairy products ready for consumption
Consumers require transportation to point of purchase, and money for purchase
All of these impact the employers, employees and animals on the dairy farm.
These standards are required to be followed for all dairy farms within British Columbia
Food and Drug Act of Canada
- regulates labeling and nutritional claims on food products
Regulations and marketing are factors in sustaining and improving policies based on consumer patterns
Economics and Production Control
There are approximately 72,000 dairy cattle and 11,000 employees in BC's Dairy Industry (BC Dairy Industry, 2009)
Economic factors need to be considered in BC's Dairy system, they need to be evaluated at a provincial level
It contributes approximately $1 billion per year to the provincial and federal economies
BC Receives a finite amount of dairy quota, under a national allocation process 
The quota is both the privilege and obligation to produce a certain amount of milk
Under the BC Milk Marketing Board Regulation, quota is then distributed through purchase to dairy producers.
Separate quota is allocated to conventional (Like Kitzel Farm) and specialty farms (Like Organic Nicomekl) farm in response to market demand
: Crops provide portion of feed for animals
Consumers contribute to the stability of their provincial economy
Dictates regulations and standards that must be met
The Canadian boundary represents the most outer boundary of the dairy system.
Regulations impact the practices of all aspects of dairy production across Canada.
Quota allowed to BC sets the amount of production across the province.
Consumption of dairy products and the production capacity dictates how much quota is allowed to BC. Consumption and demand of conventional dairy products and demand for specialty products (like organic) also influence the separation of quota between specialty farms and conventional farms
Role of the Federal Government on BC's Dairy System
At a national level, the dairy systems intent is to provide high quality, nutritious, affordable products to consumers across Canada
Acts, standards and regulations are set in place to protect the rights of animals, farmers, and employees of the dairy system
Regulations in relation to food safety ensure products remain safe for consumption during production, processing, and distribution of milk products.
These are essential actors to the amount of dairy produced at a national level affecting production of all provinces and territories.
In 2011, the Canadian Dairy Industry shipped 7.8 billion litres of milk 
In 2011, Canada consisted of 12,746 Dairy Farms. The Dairy Industry provided 218, 330 jobs nationwide between dairy farms and processing plants. 
: To run a successful business while upholding excellent standards with respect to milk quality, animal welfare, community and environmental stewardship
Nicomekl: Grass & Corn
Both Kitzel and Nicomekl feed their dairy cows silage produced from crops from their farm, diet is also supplemented with purchased grain
450 milking dairy cows
480 milking dairy cows
The Dairy Industry contributes a substantial amount of economic benefits nationwide from farm to table
: Manure is used as recycled bedding
Require all human resources
Canadian Agricultural Loans Act program
- A guarantee loan program for farmers to help create more opportunities in accessing the market, processing and distribution 
A Special Thanks
To the Kitzel and Nicomekl Farm for sharing their knowledge and insight in local dairy farm practices, and the BC Dairy System
A special thanks to all the dairy cattle providing milk to BC
Canadian Agricultural Products act
- manage dairy products health standards for trade. Also conducts grading and inspection of all products 
National Farm Animal Care Council
- regulates the care and handling practices of Dairy Cattle
BC's Dairy System
By Lawren Pallot, Aaron Sihoe, Michael Fisher, Peiying Wu, and Jin Wang
Levels of production gives rise to small and large scale farms
UBC LFS 250 - Group 28
Photo: Calf at Nicomekl farm
Photo: Milking cows at Nicomekl farm
 Price Waterhouse Cooper. (2009).
BC Dairy, Egg and Poultry Industries.
Retrieved from connect.ubc.ca
 Sage, C. (2012).
Environment and Food
 Commodity. (2014). Farming.
Ministry of Agriculture
. Retrieved from connect.ubc.ca
 Dairy Farmers of Canda. (2013).
. Retrieved from diaryfarmers.ca
 Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. (2012).
Organic Dairy Industry in Canada
. Retrieved from http://www.dairyinfo.gc.ca/pdf/organic_profile_eng.pdf
: Sun, Rain, natural resources
Feed, human resources
: Money, time
: Crops from farm, from import, human labor
: Seed, natural resources, human labor
: money, human labor
: Manure, Human labor
 British Columbia Milk Marketing Board. (2010).
BC Milk Marketing Board
. Retrieved from http://bcmilkmarketing.worldsecuresystems.com/