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Christianity

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by

Rod Williams

on 7 April 2015

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Transcript of Christianity

Christianity
Part 3
The Middle Ages
During the
Middle Ages
, Christianity made the
leap
from a
small
upstart religious offshoot of Judaism, being
persecuted
, to the
official
religion of the
Roman Empire
, to becoming the
dominant

religion
in all of
Europe
.
Why
?
A message of
hope
and
mercy
Divine

help
available to all
Promise of an
afterlife
Treated the
sick
, aided the
poor
Educated
, spread use of
technology
GOAL!
Chapter 10- Islam is next
See you then.
Christianity in the Middle Ages
The Roman church, under leadership of the Bishop of Rome (Pope), grew in power and authority
Set most standards for church doctrine, practice, and worship throughout Europe
Christian mysticism played a great role in these years
Mysticism- indicates a direct experience of the divine and a sense of oneness with God; Jesus was a role model
Francis of Assisi (1182-1226)- best known medieval mystic
Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274)- blended mysticism with philosophical thought of Aristotle and scripture
Christians made pilgrimages during 4th & 5th c. to the Holy Lands
Muslims took control of Jerusalem in the 7th c.; by 11th c. restricted pilgrimages
Attempts by Christians to take over the Holy Land were called "Crusades"
Post-Reformation Christianity
The Catholic Counter-Reformation
(17th century)
Strong
rejection
of
Protestant
changes and demands
Stressed
authority
of the
Pope
Continued use of
Latin
versus native languages in worship
Built
larger
and more
flamboyant

churches
throughout Europe
Saw the need for
uniformity
and
internal

reform
(Council of Trent)
Developed
consistent

liturgy
for
Mass
; theological
education
(Jesuits)
Vatican Councils
upheld the
infallibility
of the Pope
International
spread of Christianity
Missionary
movements in
New World
Protestant
missions
in India, Burma, Far East
Non-traditional
Christianity
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
Jehovah's Witnesses
The Protestant Reformation
The
Roman Church
in the West found itself moving into the 14th & 15th centuries with many
problems
;
growth
& centralized
power
structure
Increase in
superstitious

practices
,
veneration
of
relics
&
saints
,
indulgences
, papal
taxations
John Wycliffe
preached against
abuses
;
translated
the Bible into
English
Was accused of
heresy
by Pope Gregory XI
Martin Luther
(1483-1546) was a German priest and first to gain large following for
reform
of the church
Became struck by the words of Paul, "
The just shall live by faith
." Began to preach that
good

deeds
were
insufficient
without
faith
; importance of
Bible

reading
;
sola scriptura
,
sola fides
Opposed
the Pope's practices of
indulgences
by posting his demands for change on the door of the church at Wittenberg-
Ninety-five Theses
Excommunicated
by Pope Leo X in 1521; Luther
translates
NT into
German
Married, had children, continued to press for church
reform
Protestant Christianity
Key aspects of
Protestant Christianity
Return to simple Christianity
- imitate early Christian tradition
Centrality of Jesus
- no devotion to Mary or saints
Guidance of the Bible
- divinely inspired guide for human lives
Importance of faith
- faith in Jesus, not deeds alone, bring righteousness
Direct relation to God
- individuals have access to God; Jesus, not priests, is intermediary
Individual judgement
- Holy Spirit helps believers to understand scripture and to make decisions for everyday life
Lutheranism- faith, authority of Bible, formal worship; German, Scandanavian
Calvinism- Theologian John Calvin; original sin emphasis; predestination; focus on the sermon; Puritans migrated to America; Presbyterian Church
Church of England (Anglican)- Henry VIII split from Rome; much like Catholicism; backed the publishing of King Jame Bible in 1611; Episcopal Church
Sectarianism- notion of individual biblical interpretation grew; independent churches arose; simpler lifestyles; holy or separate living
Over the Middle Ages, the attempts by Christians to retake the Holy Land and other Muslim conquered territory, were called Crusades
Began in 1095; initiated by Pope Urban, enlisting many to fight as a Christian Soldier; Knights Templar protected pilgrimage sites & routes
The Ottoman Turks re-took Jerusalem (1291) and advanced deep toward Europe; took until the 15th c. to reclaim Spain and much of E. Europe from Muslims
In addition to ridding Europe of Muslim influence, the Pope encouraged church leaders to purge "false Christian" heresy
S. France & Spain led the way in "inquiries" or Inquisitions; Dominicans led for the Pope and King Ferdinand & Queen Isabella; lasted only a short time, but was cruel and brutal
The late Middle Ages experienced the bubonic plague (Black Death) between 1347 & 1351; 1/4 to 1/3 of European population died
Many priests and clergy fled, bringing the church great disrepute
Viewed as punishment from God for being lax in beliefs
Some blamed the Jews
Advances by Johannes Gutenberg in 15th c.
Key Sectarian Groups
The Anabaptists
- pious movement in 16th c.; stressed need for believer's baptism as sign of conversion; simple worship; Mennonite & Amish sects; Baptists?
The Baptists
- grew in England; inner conversion, believer's baptism, simplicity in worship, freedom of conscience, freedom from government control; authority of Bible
The Quakers
- English; pacifists, no clergy; worship in silence; Society of Friends
The Shakers
- grew out of Quaker movement; devotional dance; farming communities; simplicity
The Pentecostal movement
- last 100 years; emphasizes emotion in worship; manifestations of Holy Spirit
The Methodist Church
- Charles Wesley; methodical prayer; progressive sanctification; devotional and musical
Christian Practice
Christianity is a religion of
doctrines
&
ritual
; rich and complex
Sacraments
& other rituals
Baptism
- cleansing with water; universal in Christianity; sign of repentance & following Jesus;
disagreements
Eucharist
or
Lord's Supper
- imitate the
Last Supper of Jesus
; share bread & wine; recalls Jesus' life & death;
variations
and
disagreements
Confirmation
,
Marriage
,
Ordination
,
Annointing
Christian Year
Christmas
&
Easter
are central
Catholics- Lent, Devotion to Mary
Christianity in the Modern World
Challenges of science and secularism
Modern critical approaches
Naturalistic views and scientific discoveries
Conflict with traditional beliefs
Evolutionary theories, Intelligent Design
Ecumenism- denominations working together despite differences
Mainstream Protestantism & Feminism
Biblical interpretation
Inerrant; truth; fundamentalism; evangelicalism
Liberal influences
The pull of Catholic reform
Christianity's continued spread to new areas
1. Christianity grew out of ________________.
a. Hinduism
b. Judaism
c. Islam
d. Buddhism

2. Almost everything we know about Jesus comes from the four gospels of the New Testament. The word gospel means "___________."
a. vision
b. enlightenment
c. good news
d. covenant

3. T/F The early missionary journeys of John saw numerous churches established.
4. When _________ became emperor, he saw in Christianity a glue that could cement the fragments of his entire empire.
a. Herod
b. Antiochus
c. Hyrcanus
d. Constantine

5. __________, a German priest of the late Middle Ages, was the first reformer of W. Christianity to gain a large following and to survive. The movement he founded ultimately created the Protestant branch of Christianity.
a. John Wycliffe
b. Martin Luther
c. John Calvin
d. Huldruch Zwingli
Full transcript